United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Commission on Ecumenical Mission and Relations.
Secretaries Files: Korea Mission, 1903-1972 [bulk 1911-1972]
Finding Aid to Record Group 140
19.00 cu.ft.

Presbyterian Historical Society
425 Lombard St.
Philadelphia, PA 19147-1516

ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY

Presbyterian work in Korea commenced in 1884 when Dr. and Mrs. Horace Allen of the Shanghai station were transferred to Korea, then referred to as Chosen. Early mission work centered in Seoul and Pyengyang and eventually nine stations were established. The others included: Taiku (1899); Syenchyuin (1901); Chairyung (1906); Chungju (1908); Kangkai (1908); Andong (1910); and Hingkin in Manchuria (1918). Mission work in Korea was done in cooperation with several other denominations that included Methodists; Southern, Canadian and Australian Presbyterians; Baptists; Anglicans. The Presbyterians and Methodists constituted the two largest groups operative in Korea. The first Protestant Church was organized in 1887 in Seoul. In 1907, all four Presbyterians groups established the Union Presbyterian Church of Korea.

Medical work played a prominent role in the Presbyterian Church's missionary efforts in Korea. A hospital was established in Pyengyang in 1896 in conjunction with the Methodists. In 1885, Dr. Horace Allen founded the Royal Korean Hospital in Seoul that eventually became the Severance Union Hospital, Medical College and Nurses Training School. The Church's educational work commenced rather late and was complicated by a variety of difficulties, one of which being language. Primary schools, academies for boys and girls, a theological seminary and several colleges (in Seoul and Pyengyang) eventually were developed. The theological seminary in Seoul was operated in cooperation with the Methodists and represented only one example of denominational cooperation. Others included the Pierson Memorial Bible School, the Christian Literature Society and the Union Language School.

Mission work in Korea was complicated by several factors not common to other missions. The presence of the Japanese from 1910 until 1945, for example, did much to undermine the work of the missionaries, especially during the 1930s. The Shrine Issue, for instance, though superficially a patriotic concern, reduced the role of the Church in Korea to the will of the Japanese Emperor. The divisiveness that it caused was clearly manifested both before as well as after the Second World War. Likewise, the Korean War caused a period of retrenchment for the Church from which the effects are still being felt.

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

Record Group 140 documents the work of the PCUSA's Korea Mission, 1903-1972. The bulk of the collection dates from 1911. Included are primarily reports and correspondence that reflect the Church's educational, medical and evangelistic work. Contained are also materials dealing with the Shrine Question, the Korean Conspiracy, and the Korean Independence Movement.

Record Group 140 is arranged as follows:

SERIES 1: REPORTS, 1911-1971 BOXES 6-10

SERIES 2: CORRESPONDENCE, 1909-1972 BOXES 2-6 BOX 10
BOXES 17-19

SERIES 3: EDUCATIONAL WORK, 1903-1972 BOX 13
BOXES 15-16

SERIES 4: BIBLE INSTITUTE/EVANGELISM/SUNDAY
SCHOOLS/YOUTH AND RURAL WORK,
1911-1971 BOX 14

SERIES 5: MEDICAL WORK/MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS,
1911-1971 BOX 14

SERIES 6: KOREA CONSPIRACY/KOREAN
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT, 1911-1971 BOX 16

SERIES 7: MISSION SCHOOL CERTIFICATION
CONTROVERSY/ACADEMY MAINTENANCE FUND
SHRINE QUESTION, 1912-1943 BOX 12

SERIES 8: MISSION COLLEGE CONTROVERSY,
1905-1923 BOX 11

SERIES 9: PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN KOREA/CHURCH
AND MISSION MINISTRY TO CHINESE AND
JAPANESE, 1903-1972 BOX 11

SERIES 10: MISSION PROPERTY, 1911-1972 BOX 1

SERIES 11: MISCELLANY, 1907-1971 BOX 1

NOTES TO THE RESEARCHER

Box 16, Folders 43-45 are restricted.

This record group was not given a high quality of processing, as is evident from the lack of physical order in the series listed above. Researchers will have to use patience, ingenuity and perseverance to find specific materials.

"Field correspondence" generally holds the following categories of materials:

a. Cables (Misc.).
b. Apportionment of Work: Station Lists (mostly pre WW II).
c. Mission Annual Meeting.; Executive Committee Minutes
(typescript); related correspondence
d. Mission Budget; Financial resume papers.
e. Station Quarterly Letters (scattered).
f. "Publicity" articles (MS) contributed by missionaries.
g. General correspondence: Board-Korean Christians.
h. Miscellaneous correspondence (see no. 2, below)

The calendars to correspondence available in this collection are but partially reliable guides to contents. Letters missing from calendared files may be found in appropriate subject files.

Cooperating Board correspondence contains extensive Mission correspondence with the Board, and with the BFM.

Materials under the following subject headings were microfilmed before this collection was processed:

- Conspiracy Case: 1912-20
- Korea Independence Movement: 1919-20
- Religious Education Controversy: 1915-9

Materials created before 1911 have been microfilmed; researchers are advised to consult the calendars in the library.

Collection processed and finding aid prepared: February 1979
Robert A. Goldstein, Assistant Records Researcher

Finding aid revised: March 1992
Stephanie Muntone, Processing Archivist

Box	Folder	Description
1	1	Finding Aid to Record Group 140

	2	Mission History--miscellaneous papers
	3	"History of the Taiku Mission" (1907)
	4	History of the Korea Mission (undated manuscript)
	5	Historical/Contemporary Survey of Korea Mission,
		submitted to U.N. Korean Reconstruction Agency, 1953
	6	Constitutions: Mission (and Mission-related)
		Institutions 

		MISCELLANEOUS, 1907-1971	

1	7	Report of visit to Chosen Mission, Dr. C.B. McAfee, 1925
    	8-9	Surveys of Mission Work of the Chosen Mission, 1923-33
	10	Outline Summary of the Work (by Station), 1937
	11	"Report on Presbyterian Missions in Korea as of Nov. 15, 1950"
	12	Statistical Study of the Korea Mission, 1968
	13	Korean Religious Tract Society vs. Parsons Trading Co,
		exhibits, correspondence, 1913-14
	14	Dr. H.G. Underwood, 1916
	15	(Missionary) Language School, Background papers, 1922; 1933-34
	16	Korean Students (Mission-related) in America, 1926-41
	17	Korean Nationals (at home; abroad), 1963-6
   	18-19	Pai, Minsoo--BFM correspondence 1932-50
	20	Jubilee Celebration of Chosen Mission, 1934-5
	21	(Missionary) Taech'on Beach Association, 1957-8
	22	Kim, Myung Sun (M.D.), Itineration in U.S. 1959-60
	23	Pyeng Yang Foreign Cemetery Fund, 1964; 66; 69
	24	Resettlement of Koreans in Brazil, 1966
	25	Mission Employees'(Nationals) Housing Dispute, 1968-70
	26	Inter-Church Center Building Project (Seoul), 1968-71
   	27-29	RAVEMCO/Korea Radio Project, 1949-70

		 MISSION PROPERTY, 1911-1972

1	30	Fusan, Milyang, Property and Field Transfer matters,
		1912-21 (future of Junkin Memorial Hospital, 1912-3)
	31	Correspondence; Descriptive; Background papers, 1914-42
	32	1946-62
	33	(Compiled) North Korea Property Reclamation Data, 1961
	34	Correspondence; Descriptive; Background papers, 1963-66
	35	(Partial) Inventory of Real Property Holdings, with Appraised Values, 1964
	36	Correspondence; Descriptive; Background papers, 1967-72
	37	(Mission) Statistical Reports, Correspondence with Field, 1911; 1922-35
	38	Budget; Financial papers, 1948-53
	39	Five-Year Programs, Outline papers, 1948; 1955-57; 1964
   	40-42	Currency Exchange Problem, Correspondence, 1956-59
	43	Exchange/Cost-of living Problems, Correspondence; Background papers, 1963-5
	
		BOARD CIRCULAR LETTERS TO MISSION, 1913-51;
		FIELD SECRETARY CIRCULAR LETTERS TO MISSION, 1952-71

2	1	(Scattered) Board Letters missing from series, #64 - #371
	2	1913
	3	1915
    	4-27	1917-42
   	28-30	1945-51
	31	Field Secretary Letters, 1952-4 (some missing)
   	32-34	1955-61 (some missing)
	35	(Scattered) Commission Representative Letters, 1964-71
	
		FIELD, EXECUTIVE AND TREASURER'S CORRESPONDENCE,
		1910-1972

3   	1-31	Calendared Field and Executive Correspondence, 1911-25

4   	1-17	Executive Correspondence, 1926-41
   	18-53	Field Correspondence, 1910-45

5   	1-37	Executive Correspondence, 1946-62
	38	Treasurer's Correspondence, 1962

6   	1-2	Executive Correspondence, 1963
	3	Treasurer's Correspondence, 1963
    	4-19	Executive Correspondence, 1964-72
   	20-44	Field Correspondence, 1946-70

		REPORTS, 1911-1971

6   	45-56	Station Reports to Mission, 1912-13, 1917, 1919-29

7   	1-27	                                                   1930-65
	28	Educational Institution reports, 1911-38
	29	Medical Institution reports, 1915-41
   	30-58	Institutions/Projects--Annual Reports, 1913-41
   	59-76	 				    1949-69, 1971

8	1	Missionary Reports, miscellaneous, 1916-41
    	2-25	quarterly and annual, 1911-25

9   	1-24			          1926-37

10  	1-8			          1938-42
    	9-27			          1947-70

		MISSIONARY PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1909-1931; 1965

10	28	Miscellaneous correspondence, 1965
	29	Avison, Dr/Mrs. O.R, 1931
	30	Bergman, A.L, 1927
	31	Brownlee, R.B, 1915-17
	32	Chase, M.L, 1911, 1915
	33	Erdman, Rev/Mrs. W.C, 1909-14, 1929-30
	34	Gillis, Rev/Mrs. A.W, 1922-3
	35	Greenfield, Rev. M.W, 1915-6
	36	Hanson, M.L, 1927-30
	37	Helstrom, H, 1927
	38	Lyon, Rev/Mrs. W.B, 1928-30
	39	McCune, Rev/Mrs. G.S, 1927
	40	McFarland, Rev. E.F, 1923-7
	41	Pieters, Rev/Mrs. A.A, 1927-8
	42	Purviance, Dr/Mrs. W.C, 1917-31
	43	Renich, Rev. E.A, 1913
	44	Ross, Rev/Mrs. C, 1926-8
	45	Smith, Rev. W.E, 1917-8
	46	Soltau, Mr/Mrs. D.L, 1929
	47	Tipton, Dr/Mrs. S.P, 1926
	48	Toms, Rev/Mrs. J.U.S, 1923-4
	49	Wells, Dr/Mrs. J.H, 1915-8
	
		MISSIONARY CIRCULAR "DEAR FRIENDS" LETTERS, 1914-65

10	50	1915-5, 1918
   	51-55	1920-42
	56	1959-65

		KOREAN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH MISSIONS TO THE CHINESE
		AND JAPANESE, 1912-1967

11	 1	Establishment of Church Union in Korea, 1903-06
	 2	Taiku Central Church, 1923-32
	 3	Seoul Presbytery and the Korean Church controversy, 1934-36
	 4	Proposed "Joint Committee" for Korea, 1948
	 5	1952-7
	 6	Church-Mission Consultation (June, 1957)
	 7	Mission-Church Cooperative Work, 1958-60
     	8-9	Schism, 1959-60
	10	Department of Cooperative Work (DCW), 1961-62
	11	Interboard/Korean Church Consultation (May, 1964), 1963
   	12-14	Post-Consultation, 1964-68
	15	Partnership in Mission (with BFM); with other Boards/Missions, 1969-70; 72
	16	Church-Mission Cooperative Arrangements; Inter-Bd
		Arrangements, Rules/By-Laws; Agreements, 1948-69
	17	Korean FCC, Statistics, 1926-7; FCC Social Services/
		Mission Social Services, Background papers, 1937-40
	18	KNCC (National Christian Council of Korea), 1946-52
	19							   1954-60
	20		                                                  1961-3; 1967-71
	21	Korea Church World Service, 1955-58
	22	Japanese in Korea, 1912; 1924; 1935
	
11	23	Korean Presbyterian Church--Missionary Work (Japan; China; general), 1930-1; 1934; 1939
	24	Mission Work in Manchuria, 1913-36; Mission to Chinese in Korea, 1927
	25	Chinese Churches in Korea, 1947-67

		MISSION COLLEGE CONTROVERSY, 1905-1925

11   	26-27	1905-13--Correspondence; Background papers
	28	1913
	29	1913-14--BFM correspondence with J.E. Adams (Secretary,
			    Senate of the Educational Federation of
			    Christian Missions in Korea
   	30-31	Correspondence
   	32-33	1914--Background papers; 1914
	34	1915
	35	1916-17--Reappraisal of Powers of BFM; Mission
	36	1917
	37	1917--"A Brief on the Subject of the Desirability of an
	  		 Adjustment between Home Base and Field as relates
			 to Field Administration"
	


38	1918--"Memorandum on Actions of the Chosen Mission and
its Exec. Comm. regarding readjustment of the powers of the BFM and the Mission" 
	39	1918-19--Reappraisal of Powers of BFM; Mission
   	40-44	1920-23
   	45-46	1923-25--Readjustment of Policy & Method in Chosen
			    Mission

		MISSION SCHOOL CERTIFICATION CONTROVERSY,
		ACADEMY MAINTENANCE FUND, SHRINE QUESTION, 1912-43

12	 1	1912-14--Correspondence; Background papers
	 2	1915--Memorandum re the separation of Education and
		Religion in Chosen
	3-5	1915-16
	 6	Certification Controversy and the Syen Chyun
		Girls' Academy--Correspondence
     	7-9	1916-23
	10	1927--Report of Speer Visit to Chosen Mission,
		Educational and Evangelistic Concerns
   	11-12	1923-36--Mission Academies
	13	1936-40--Index of BFM Actions Regarding Withdrawal from
		General Education in Chosen
   	14-22	1935-37--Shrine Question
	23	1937--Petitions to BFM
	24	1937-40--Shrine Question and John D. Wells School (Seoul)
   	25-29	1938--Correspondence; Background papers
	30	1939-41--Shrine Question and Chung Sin Girls' Academy
		(Seoul)
	
12	31	1939--BFM Staff informal conference with certain members of Chosen Mission, Minutes
	32	1940--Chosen Mission Controversy
	33	1940-41, 1943--Shrine Question

		EDUCATIONAL WORK, 1903-1972

13	 1	Survey of Korea Missionaries, 1944
     	2-3	Survey responses, PCUSA
	 4			      PCUS
     	5-6			      Methodist Episcopal
	 7			      United Church of Canada

		Educational Institutions, pre-WW II

	 8	Seoul Girls' Academy, 1903-38
	 9	Seoul Boys' Academy (John D. Wells School),1904; 13
	10	Pyengyang Foreign School, 1911-37
	11	Pyengyang Girls' Academy; Boys' Academy, 1913-29
	12	Seoul Foreign School 1914-41
   	13-14	Pyengyang Union Christian College, 1916-38, Reports, 1911-21
	15	Pyengyang Theological Seminary (Presbyterian
		Theological Seminary of Korea), 1917-40
	16	Ewha Women's College (Seoul), 1922-47
	17	Keisung Academy (Taiku); Taiku Bible Institute, 1928-46

		Educational Institutions, post-WW II

	18	General, 1948-70;  Korea Educational Survey
		Correspondence
	19	Work for the Blind, 1951, 1964
	20	Korea Council of Christian Education, 1953-65
	21	"Four-College Merger Plan," 1966-69 
	22	Ewha Women's College (Seoul), 1947-58
23	Presbyterian Theological Seminary (Chosen Theological Seminary), 1948-62; 1971 
	24	Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 1953-7
	25	Soangsil Academy; Soong Ei Academy (Seoul), 1948-59
	26	Kyung Sin (John D. Wells) Academy; Chung Sin Academy
		(Seoul), 1948-50; 1958-9; 1966; 68
	27	Soong Sil College, 1952-56; Correspondence, 1958; 61
   	28-30	Keimyung Christian College (Taegu), 1953-68
   	31-32	Seoul Woman's College, 1956-72
	33	Keisung Academy (Taegu), 1956-8
	34	Sinmyung Academy (Taegu), 1962-3
   	35-37	Other Institutions, 1960-72
	
		Bible Institutes/Sunday Schools/Youth Work/Rural Work
14    	1-3	Arthur T. Pierson Memorial Bible School, 1911-40
	4	Korean Bible Institutes, 1914-5
	5	Evangelistic Work, 1907-39; 									            Christian Literature, 1924-37
6	Bible Club Movement; Christian Literature,     1946-70 
	7	Evangelism, "Unknown Donor Program," 1917-22
	8	Adams Evangelistic Fund, 1922-27; Reports, 1925; 1928-9
	9	Social Evangelistic Center (Seoul), 1920-36
	10	Industrial Evangelism, 1957-65
	11	"Detailed Comments of Missionaries on Future of 
		Evangelistic Work in Korea", 1957
	12	Sunday Schools, 1914-15; 1927; 1929 
	13	Sunday School Work (Korea Sunday School Association), 	1927-32
14	Young people's Work, Korean Student Christian Movement (etc), 1953-54; 1959-68
	15	"The Country Church in Korea," Paper, 1927; BFM-Mission
		correspondence in re,; Background papers, 1928
	16	Rural Work, Taejon Inter-Mission Project; Good
		Samaritan Project in Korea, 1948-71

		MEDICAL WORK/MISSION MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS, 1911-1971

	17	Medical Work, 1911-41 "Medical Missionary Policy in Korea," c. 1924)
	18	1948-70
	19	Licensing of Korea Medical Missionaries and Institutions, 1914-23; 1931; 33; 40
	20	Leper Work, Korean Committee of Mission to Lepers, 1919-22; 1927; 37
	21	Duncan Memorial Hospital (Chungju), 1910-34
	22	Baker Memorial Hospital (Andong), 1911-33
	23	Hall Memorial Union Hospital (Caroline A. Ladd Hospital) (Pyengyang), 1914-41
	24	Presbyterian Hospital; Leper Hospital (Taiku), 1921-41
	25	Kennedy Memorial Hospital (Kangkei), 1926-37
   	26-33	Presbyterian Hospital (Taegu), 1947-70
   	34-35	Amputee Project, Rehabilitation of Korean Amputees, 1952-59, 1967
	36	Tuberculosis Control Project, 1966-71
	37	Kojedo Community Health Project, 1968-71

		EDUCATIONAL WORK (cont'd)

		Cooperating Board for Christian Education in Chosen

15	 1	Planning correspondence, 1912-3
     	2-13	Administrative and general correspondence, Background papers, 1914-41
	14	"Inquiry on Future Cooperation in Higher Education in Korea," 1944

		Chosen Christian College

	15	Annual and Dean's Annual Reports, 1919-35
	
	16	Field Board of Managers Annual and Special Meetings,
		(scattered) Minutes, 1919-35
	17	Committee and Financial Reports, 1918-23; 1925
	18	Committee and Financial Reports, 1926-28; 1930-1;	
		(scattered) Reports to Seoul Station, 1915-38
   	19-20	1914-38
	21	1946-60

		Severance Hospital and Medical College

15	22	Annual Reports; Treasurer's Reports, 1913-27
	23	1928-32
	24	Field Board of Managers, (scattered) Minutes, 1919-41 
	25	Budgets; Financial Statements, 192~-33
	26	Reports to Seoul Station, 1917-27; Misc. Reports, 1919-33
	27	Background papers, 1914-33 (some undated)
	28	Correspondence, 1904-5
   	29-41	Correspondence; Background papers, 1914-43

16  	1-5						1948-57
		(includes postwar Board Minutes, scattered)

    	6-8	Yonsei University, 1957-64

		KOREA CONSPIRACY CASE, 1911-19/KOREA INDEPENDENCE
		MOVEMENT, 1919-21

    	9-10	Conspiracy Case, 1911-2
	11		 1913-5; 1917; 19
	12	  McCune Affair, 1914-5
   	13-17	Independence Movement, 1919-20
	18	Mowry arrest/trial, 1919-20	
   	19-20	Japanese persecution of  Christians in Korea, 1920
	21					                         1921

		World War II

16	22	Presbyterian Church in Korea; Korea Mission,
		General observations on conditions, 1938-42
	23	Partial Evacuation of Korea Mission, 1940
	24	BFM correspondence with Furloughed Korea Missionaries, 1940-3
	25	Lowe-DeCamp Case; World Day of Prayer Affair, Field
		correspondence with Furloughed Missionaries; 1941
	26	Mission Exec. Comm., Special Meetings Minutes; Related correspondence, 1942
	27	Mission Members, Children of Members, Rosters, War Service Data, 1942-45
	28	Korea Mission Conference on Post-war Work, 1943
	29	Re-establishment of Korea Mission work; 1943-8
	30	Korea Consultative Conference, 1944
	31	Korea Mission, "Group A" Missionaries, Planning
		Conference for re-entry to Field, 1945
	32	Mission Exec. Comm., Emergency Meetings, Agenda; Actions, Oct.-Dec., 1946
	33	Reports, 1946-7
	34	Survey, Korea Mission, 1947
	35	Post-War BFM Deputation to Korea, 1947
	36	Mission Reorganization Minutes, 1948

		Korean War

	37	Korean War, 1950
	38	Korea Evacuee Advisory Committee, 1950-52
39	Korean War, Correspondence, Background, Papers, Cables (including Reports, Bd. Missions to Korea), 1951
	40	Chaplain's Report, Kojedo Prisoner of War Camp, 1951-52
	41	Rehabilitation; Normalization of Mission Work, 1952
	42	Relief/Rehabilitation Funds, Financial Report, 1950-54, 1954
   	43-44	Korean Orphans, Mission-Supported Orphanage Programs;
		Mixed-blood/Proxy Adoption, 1949-64
	45	ECLAIR Project/Welfare of mixed-blood orphans), 1965-71

		MISSIONARY PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1931-1965

17  	1-21     1931-39

18  	1-20	1940-54

19  	1-10	1955-65