Western Medicine in China
This guide presents the holdings of the Presbyterian Historical Society that document the history of Presbyterian medical missions in China. It was created as part of the History of Western Medicine in China project, generously funded by the Henry R. Luce Foundation and jointly sponsored by Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and the Peking University Health Science Center.
The guide begins with a brief historical overview of the medical missionary work in China by two major American Presbyterian denominations: the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (PCUSA) and the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (PCUS). Following this history are descriptions of the materials held by the Presbyterian Historical Society that illustrate the work of missionary physicians, nurses, and medical educators sent to China under the auspices of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. The materials in the guide are arranged into three sections: Agency Records, Personal Papers, and Publications. Note that place names in this guide follow the Wade-Giles system of Romanization (and sometimes other non-standard Romanization systems), rather than the current Pinyin system. This usage reflects the names as they were used by missionaries and foreign mission boards.
The Agency Records section describes materials created or collected by the Board of Foreign Missions and the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions which oversaw the work of Presbyterian missionaries in China, as well as by other denominational offices involved in foreign mission work, such as medical, education, and communication departments. These records include personnel files of missionaries; official correspondence to and from the foreign field; minutes and reports of work performed at mission stations and institutions; and histories, bulletins, catalogs, and newsletters documenting a range of mission activities and institutions. These records are a good source of information on denominational policy regarding medical mission work, statistics of the medical services provided by the mission hospitals and clinics; and personal accounts of those medical missionaries working in China during this period of rapid and often turbulent social and political change.
The Personal Papers section of the guide describes collections created by missionaries who served in China between 1843 and 1952. Although most of these collections are the papers of physicians, nurses, or medical educators, several of them were created by non-medical personnel but contain substantial documentation of the medical work of their fellow missionaries. These collections shed light on the motivations and experiences of medical personnel, who for the most part worked with very scarce resources to serve the medical needs of a very large patient population. They also provide a view, at the level of the individual, of the interactions between foreign residents and the Chinese people. The content of each collection varies, but many include correspondence, reports and other writings describing mission life and medical work; photographs; and publications about mission stations and medical institutions.
The Publications section of the guide includes works published by the denominational boards and major foreign missionary societies; by the missions; and by individual medical (and a few non-medical) missionaries. The publications in the society’s holdings provide a wide range of documentation of Presbyterian medical mission work in China, from narrative accounts of working with patients in wards, clinics, and in private homes, to statistical summaries of the patients treated and medical conditions encountered, to information about the funding of hospital facilities and equipment. The publications in the society’s holdings are presented according to topic, beginning with works printed by the foreign mission boards and missionary societies responsible for administering and funding mission work in China. This is followed by a listing of missionary periodicals and works on Presbyterian medical missions in general and on Presbyterian medical work in China. Then there is a listing of serials, books, and pamphlets arranged by mission station. These include official station reports and minutes, as well as bulletins and histories about individual hospitals, medical schools and other institutions providing medical or public health services. Finally, there is a selection of works by and about individual medical missionaries; these include memoirs, biographies, interviews, and extracts from letters and journals.
The items selected for inclusion in this guide are those that focus most closely on the medical work conducted in China by Presbyterian missionaries. The society holds an extensive collection of books, pamphlets, and serials on Presbyterian and other Protestant foreign missions and on the countries in which the work was carried out. At the end of this guide is an appendix of publications that may be of use to researchers working on Western medical programs in China. These publications include atlases of mission efforts, which provide summary data about the various missionary societies’ medical work; annual reports of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM); the Chinese Recorder and China Mission Yearbook, two serials which include information on medical missionary work; and reports and membership lists of medical missionary associations.
Researchers are encouraged to consult the society’s online and card catalogs and confer with reference staff to locate resources pertinent to their topics of interest. Please note that although the foreign mission holdings are cataloged, most of them are not yet included in the society’s electronic catalog.
American Presbyterian missions to China began in the nineteenth century, during a period characterized by conflict within the church over matters of theology, governance, and attitudes towards slavery. This dissention resulted in the formation of new denominations and a split in the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. into Old School and New School branches. A major division in the church occurred with the onset of the Civil War, when Southern Presbyterians split from the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. to form the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, which would in 1865 become the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. The earliest American Presbyterian missionaries to China arrived in the field before this split, but for the most part American Presbyterian mission work in China was performed under the auspices of the two largest American Presbyterian denominations: the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (PCUSA), sometimes referred to as Northern Presbyterians, and the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (PCUS), or Southern Presbyterians.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Medical Mission to China
China was the first and eventually the largest mission field of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Before the establishment of the Board of Foreign Missions (BFM) of the PCUSA, plans for mission work in China had already begun under the Western Foreign Missionary Society of the Synod of Pittsburgh. At the PCUSA General Assembly meeting of 1837, the church formally organized the BFM, and the mission work of the Western Foreign Missionary Society was taken over by the new denominational agency. The first missionaries appointed by the BFM in 1837 were assigned to China, and they arrived in the field in 1838. Because of China’s restrictions on foreign residents, they settled in Singapore, which had a large Chinese population. The mission developed slowly during its early years because of these residency restrictions and because many of the missionaries had trouble adjusting to the climate and fell ill. With the signing of the Treaty of Nanking at the conclusion of the first Opium War in 1842, port cities opened to foreign settlement, and the mission began to grow. Over the years as the number of stations grew, the BFM organized the field into mission regions to facilitate the administration of the mission effort. By 1923, there were eight PCUSA missions in China: Canton (South China), Shantung, North China, Hainan, Hunan, Central China, Kiangan and Yunnan.
Dr. Divie Bethune McCartee established the first successful PCUSA mission station in mainland China at Ningpo in 1844. Dr. McCartee opened a small dispensary and visited patients in their homes. The opening of the Ningpo dispensary marks the beginning of just over a hundred years of Presbyterian medical missions in China. In the first decades of the mission, much of the medical service at mission stations was provided by non-medical personnel, who dispensed medicine and treatments for common ailments as they evangelized among the Chinese. In these early years, missionaries who held medical degrees engaged in both medical service and evangelistic work. By the late 19th century, however, more professionally trained physicians and nurses were assigned by the BFM, and medical work gained recognition as an important part of the ministry of the mission.
The first missionary physician sent to China by the BFM for the sole purpose of providing medical service was Dr. John G. Kerr. He arrived in Canton in 1854 and the next year took over superintendency of Canton Christian Hospital, which had been founded by Dr. Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary to China (under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions). Under Dr. Kerr’s leadership, the hospital expanded and became a major center for health services and medical education. Sun Yat-sen, the first president of the Republic of China, received some of his medical training at the hospital under Dr. Kerr. Dr. Kerr also founded the Refuge for the Insane in Canton, which was the first hospital in China dedicated to treating mental illness.
The medical work of the PCUSA ranged from the extensive hospital complexes built up over time in large cities such as Canton and Peking, to small dispensaries and clinics in the mission compounds. Many stations eventually opened hospitals. In 1925, the PCUSA missions throughout China operated 36 hospitals with a total of more than 2000 beds. Many of the hospitals included training programs for Chinese nurses and physicians. Union hospitals and medical schools were an important part of the Presbyterian medical mission. These institutions were the result of cooperation among various American, English, and Canadian Protestant missionary societies and charitable or educational institutions, such as the Rockefeller Foundation, the Harvard-Yenching Institute, or Yale-in-China. Although PCUSA and PCUS missions typically operated independently of each other, they cooperated in several of these union institutions. Missionaries also built institutions to meet social and public health needs; two examples are the Chefoo School for the Deaf in Shantung Province and the Ming Sum School for the Blind in Canton.
In addition to treating patients who came to the facilities within the mission compounds, many medical missionaries visited patients in their homes or set up village clinics to deliver prenatal and well-baby care and lessons on hygiene and nutrition. Home visits and village clinics allowed medical missionaries to reach more women patients, who, because of social constraints, were often unwilling to come to mission hospitals that served male patients or be seen by male doctors. These social constraints meant that women physicians were a vital part of the Presbyterian medical mission almost from its beginning. Many mission stations opened separate wards or hospitals for women and children.
The missionary physician who made the greatest strides towards medical care for women and children among Presbyterian missions was Dr. Mary Hannah Fulton. She arrived in Canton in 1884 and in the early years of her practice, saw patients in a small space in a shop rented by the church. Recognizing the need for an institution dedicated to medical care for women and children, Dr. Fulton, along with her brother, the Rev. Albert A. Fulton, raised funds to build the David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children, which opened in 1901. Over the next several years, Dr. Fulton continued to expand the mission’s services for women and children, adding the E.A.K. Hackett Medical College for Women, the Julia M. Turner Training School for Nurses, the Mary H. Perkins Maternity Ward, and a number of other facilities for medical students and staff.
Medical missionaries helped to lay the foundation for what would become China’s medical education infrastructure, with the establishment of medical and nurse training schools throughout the country, translation of medical texts into Chinese, the formation of professional medical and nursing associations, and the training of several generations of Chinese physicians and nurses. Over the course of the Presbyterian mission in China, the hospitals and medical schools built by the mission were gradually turned over to the management of Chinese medical professionals.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Medical Mission to China
The Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (PCUS), like its Northern counterpart, saw China as a fruitful field for its missionary endeavors. The Executive Committee of Foreign Missions (ECFM) of the PCUS was formed at the first General Assembly meeting in 1861 after Southern Presbyterians split from the PCUSA. During the Civil War, the Committee restricted its work to national missions, sending missionaries to the Indian nations in Oklahoma. After the war, China was the first field chosen for foreign mission work. Elias B. Inslee arrived in China in 1867, and by the following year, he had opened a mission station at Hangchow. As with the early missions of the PCUSA, the work was quite slow to take root as the missionaries struggled to establish stations. Conditions slowly improved, and as the church at home recovered from the effects of the war, so did the fortunes of the mission that relied on it for funding and new missionary staff. Through the latter part of the 19th century, the construction of churches, schools, and residences began to accelerate.
The first PCUS mission stations were located in Chekiang and Kiangsu provinces, in the Yangtze River delta. In 1900, the mission was divided into two administrative regions: Mid China and North Kiangsu, with the Yangtze as the dividing line between the two missions. In the early 20th century, two stations in Shantung were opened, and were attached to the North Kiangsu Mission. At the turn of the 20th century, the PCUS had 71 missionaries posted at ten mission stations. There were clinics and dispensaries at several of these stations, though only one, Soochow, had a formal hospital building. In the early years of the mission, dispensaries were often run by non-medical personnel, but in 1898, the mission instituted a rule that only trained doctors could dispense medicine.
Dr. Robert Baxter Fishburne was the first medical missionary assigned by the ECFM to serve in China. He only remained in the country from 1881 to 1883, and several years would pass before the next PCUS missionary physician arrived. Dr. Edgar Woods, Jr. arrived in 1887 and, along with his brother Dr. James Baker Woods, who arrived in China in 1893, provided medical care in Tsingkiangpu, a poor rural area where the need for care was great, but the facilities and resources were lacking. The next missionary physician assigned was Dr. Annie R. Houston Patterson, the first woman physician assigned to China by the PCUS, and one of its longest serving doctors: she was appointed in 1891 and retired from the field in 1939. Like Dr. Patterson, many of the early medical missionaries for the PCUS remained in service for decades, building the medical practice at stations from rudimentary clinics to full hospital programs.
In the early 20th century, the PCUS continued to develop its medical missions, building seven hospitals in the North Kiangsu mission region, and three in the Mid-China region. Between 1916 and 1924, Cheeloo University School of Medicine in Tsinan (later called the School of Medicine of Shantung Christian University) was formed through the consolidation of five medical colleges. This effort was organized by an inter-denominational union of American, British, and Canadian missionary societies and supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Dr. Randolph Shields, a PCUS missionary and professor of embryology and histology, served as the school’s dean from 1926 to 1935. He also taught courses at the school, translated medical texts, and worked continuously to raise funds for the school’s facilities and its endowment.
The medical missions of the PCUS were, from the start, operated on a smaller scale than those of the PCUSA. Through the mid 1920s, the medical missions saw increases in staffing and construction and refurbishment of hospital buildings. Over the next decades, events in China and on the international stage began to reverse this trend. Fighting between the Nationalist Kuomintang forces and the Communists in the late 1920s resulted in the evacuation of mission stations, and the Great Depression led to decreased financial support of foreign mission work. The number of physicians and nurses leaving China outstripped the number of new appointees, so remaining medical personnel were stretched thin. During the period of the 1920s and 1930s, however, more Chinese physicians and nurses were trained at mission medical schools and hospitals, and they gradually took over the work of providing care and administering medical institutions. The Japanese invasion of China and World War II put further strains on the work of the missions, both PCUS and PCUSA. After the 1937 invasion, mission stations took in refugees from the fighting and there was a great need for medical service. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, many PCUS and PCUSA missionaries returned voluntarily to the United States; those who did not were interned by the Japanese for a period of time before being returned to the U.S. in 1942 and 1943. After the war, PCUS missionaries again took over the work at some mission hospitals and medical schools, but in general, conditions at the facilities had deteriorated over the course of the war, and before medical programs could be brought back to their former state, the Communist Revolution put an end to all missionary efforts. The last PCUS missionaries left the country in 1952.
The following sources were consulted for the historical overviews of the medical missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.:
Brown, Arthur Judson. One hundred years: a history of the foreign missionary work of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1936.
Brown, G. Thompson. Earthen vessels and transcendent power: American Presbyterians in China, 1837-1952. Maryknoll, N.Y. : Orbis Books, 1997.
Crane, Sophie Montgomery. “A Century of PCUS Medical Mission, 1881-1983.” American Presbyterians, Vol. LXV, No. II, pp. 135-146.
Crane, Sophia Montgomery. A legacy remembered: a century of medical missions. Franklin, Tenn.: Providence House Publishers, c1998.
Gleeson, Kristin L. “The Stethoscope and the Gospel: Presbyterian Foreign Medical Missions, 1840-1900.” American Presbyterians, Vol. LXXI, No. II, pp. 127-138.
Heuser, Frederick J. Culture, feminism, and the gospel: American Presbyterian women and foreign missions, 1870-1923. [Philadelphia, Pa.: n.p.], 1991.
Parker, Michael. “175 Years of Presbyterian World Mission.” Retrieved from http://history.pcusa.org/history/175.cfm, May 2012.
Price, P. Frank. Our China investment: 60 years of the Southern Presbyterian Church in China. Nashville: Educational Department, Executive Committee of Foreign Missions, 1927.
Tiedemann, R. G. Reference guide to Christian missionary societies in China: from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2009.
Guide to the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Secretaries files: China Mission, 1891-1955, RG 82, Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA.
Guide to the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. China Mission records, 1868-1969, RG 431, Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA.
 Beach, Harlan P. and Charles H. Fahs, eds. World missionary atlas. New York : Institute of Social and Religious Research, 1925, p. 125.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions
Mission correspondence and reports microform, 1833-1911
300 reels (53 reels relate to China Mission)
Call number MF 10 F761a
Access note: this collection is only available on microfilm. The China Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. is documented on 53 reels: #189-218, 232-237, and 244-261.
There is a complete calendar of the collection available in printed form (call number REF BV 2570 .P7 M5 v.1-31) and on microfilm (MF POS 70). The calendar provides synopses of each letter and report, organized by mission field and date. There is also a name and subject index to the collection available in the Presbyterian Historical Society’s reading room.
Missionary correspondence (incoming and outgoing) of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. The letters address evangelistic, educational, and medical work carried out at the following missions: Canton (1837-1911); Central China (1899-1911); Hainan (1891-1911); Hunan (1900-1911); Kiangan (1905-1911); Macao (1845-1851); Ningpo (1848-1867); North China (1888-1910); Peking (1901-1910); Shanghai (1850-1864); South China (1897-1911); West China (1897-1900). Note that over the course of the work done in China by the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., as the mission grew, new mission stations were established and some mission regions were reconfigured.
Correspondence relevant to medical mission work includes letters sent to and received from missionary doctors and nurses in mission stations throughout China. Correspondence of non-medical missionaries sometimes sheds light on the medical work at mission hospitals and dispensaries.
Topics found in the correspondence include funding, building, and running hospitals and dispensaries; the state of health of the Chinese population and the need for medical professionals; staffing needs and Board decisions about staffing; broader mission policy; the effect of political and military events on medical work and on the lives of missionaries and the Chinese; relations and levels of trust between Chinese residents and foreigners; attitudes among the Chinese about western medicine and other scientific and technological matters. The correspondence also sheds light on the interactions among the missionaries themselves, including discussions, and occasionally disagreements, on how best to manage and finance medical facilities.
Medical missionaries that are particularly well represented in this collection include Boudinot Atterbury, Eleanor Chesnut, William H. Dobson, Mary H. Fulton, Carl C. Jeremiassen, John G. Kerr, Eliza E. Leonard, Charles Lewis, Henry McCandliss, Divie Bethune McCartee, Janet C. McKillican, Edward Machle, James B. Neal, and John Myers Swan.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions
Secretaries files: China Mission, 1891-1955
71 cubic feet
Call number RG 82
Minimally processed; there is a finding aid and container list for this collection, but the materials have not been thoroughly arranged or described, so researchers may need to spend some time to locate materials most relevant to their topics.
Mission work in China by the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. began in 1837 and was educational, medical, and evangelical in nature. Missionaries founded elementary, secondary, higher education, and technical institutions, as well as over ninety hospitals and dispensaries throughout China. Evangelization was a cooperative effort among various Presbyterian groups working in China. A synod was organized in 1906; in 1918 this became the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in China. In 1927, the Presbyterian Church in China was renamed Church of Christ in China. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, China was largest of the Board of Foreign Missions' operations, with eight missions located in Canton (later South China Mission), Shantung, North China, Hainan, Hunan, Central China, Kiangan, and Yunnan, established between 1845 and 1923. Mission work in China was disrupted by the Kuomintang in 1927 and by the Sino-Japanese War in 1937. The 1949 Communist takeover terminated missionary work on the Chinese mainland, though work continued in conjunction with other denominations in Hong Kong and Taiwan among the refugee populations.
This collection contains correspondence, minutes, reports, Board letters, and printed materials on the various mission stations and institutions set up and maintained by the Board of Foreign Missions in China, 1891-1955. Material relevant to medical mission work in China includes minutes and reports from mission hospitals and mission and union medical colleges, correspondence from missionaries about medical facilities, equipment, supplies, and policy; and files of articles, reports, and correspondence on medical mission and medical education. Some of the institutions documented in the collection include: Hackett Medical College, Canton Hospital, and the Ming Sum School for the Blind in Canton; the Peking Union Medical Center; Weihsien Hospital , Shantung Christian University Medical School, and Chefoo School for the Deaf in Shantung; Hengchow Hospital in Hunan; Nanking Hospital in Kiangsu; and Hoihow Hospital in Hainan. Information on many other institutions will also be found in the collection, but because the materials have not been thoroughly arranged and indexed, researchers may have to go through a number of boxes to find items relevant to their topics of study.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. China Mission
5.75 cubic feet
Call number RG 431
The first Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (PCUS) missionary to China arrived in 1867, and the first mission station was officially organized at Hangchow the following year. PCUS missionary work included evangelism, education, and medical service. In 1900, the mission was divided into two administrative regions: Mid China and North Kiangsu. Over the next several decades, the mission opened stations in Hwainfu, Lianyungang, Taichow, and Yencheng, and the educational programs and church membership continued to increase. The first PCUS independent presbytery in China, Kiang Cheh Presbytery, was formed in 1906. In cooperation with the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (PCUSA), the PCUS opened Nanjing Theological Seminary in 1906. In the same year the two denominations also worked together to form a Union Synod consisting of five presbyteries.
The mid 20th century saw periods of revolutionary and nationalist turmoil that disrupted the work of the PCUS mission. In 1927, many missionaries were evacuated; mission work resumed in the 1930s with an increasing involvement by Chinese ministers, educators, and medical personnel. During the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, many mission compounds were used for Chinese refugees. At the onset of World War II, some PCUS missionaries were evacuated from China, and some were incarcerated by the Japanese. After the war, many missionaries returned to their work in the country, but the Communist takeover and the beginning of the Korean War marked the end of mission work in China. The last PCUS missionaries left the country in 1952.
This collection documents PCUS mission work in China at the Mid-China Mission and the North Kiangsu Mission. There are also records related to the Church of Christ in China and the China Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. The collection is arranged into nine series: Minutes, 1868-1950; Mid-China Mission, 1896-1941; North Kiangsu Mission, 1899-1940; Newsletters, 1908-1941; Pamphlets, 1886-1961; Subject files, 1897-1967; Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. China Mission, 1871-1940; Church of Christ in China, 1922-1951; and Miscellaneous, 1889-1969.
Documentation of the medical work performed by PCUS missionaries can be found in the minutes of the PCUS China Mission, in station minutes and reports, and in newsletters. Printed bulletins and reports are included for a number of the hospitals operated at PCUS mission stations. PCUS hospitals in the collection include Kashing Hospital; Kiangyin Hospital; Elizabeth Blake Hospital and E.B. Chester Women’s Hospital, both in Soochow; Goldsby King Memorial Hospital in Chinkiang; and Tsingkiangpu General Hospital. The collection also includes reports and other information about the Cheeloo University School of Medicine and the Nanking University Hospital.
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Worldwide Ministries Division. Stewardship and Communication Development Unit.
12.33 cubic feet
Call number RT 927
This collection consists of Missionary Correspondence Department letters written by overseas missionaries of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. to friends and supporters at home. Letters are arranged by country and date. These “dear friends” letters document the evangelistic, educational, and medical work of the missions. Missionaries report on their work and home lives, their travels, and how the local political and social conditions affect the work of the mission. Letters from PCUS missionaries in China date from 1929 to 1951.
The Presbyterian Historical Society holds several additional collections of correspondence from Presbyterian missionaries, including missionary physicians and nurses. See the following collections:
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Board of World Missions. Missionary Correspondence Department. Office of the Executive Secretary records, 1925-1972 (6.66 cubic feet, call number RT 926). This collection contains correspondence from PCUS missionaries arranged by missionary name. There is some duplication between this collection and RT 927, which is arranged by country.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Board of World Missions. Educational Department records, 1889-1972 (12 cubic feet, call number RT 870). This is a collection of missionary correspondence arranged by name. Many of the files also include clippings and biographical information about the missionaries.
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Congregational Ministries Division. Missionary Correspondence Program letters, 1949-1996 (7.5 cubic feet, accession number 08 0812). This collection consists of binders of letters arranged by mission field and date. Letters from China from 1949 to 1952 describe conditions at missions toward the end of the Presbyterian mission presence in the country. Included are letters from missionaries working under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.
Extensive correspondence from PCUSA missionaries can be found in two of the collections described previously in this guide: Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Missions correspondence and reports microform, 1833-1911 (call number MF 10 F761a); and Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Secretaries files: China Missions, 1891-1955 (call number RG 82).
United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Commission on Ecumenical Mission and Relations. Medical Department
5 cubic feet
Call number RG 144
The Medical Department was established in 1921 as the first organized attempt by the Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., to supervise the health of missionaries in the foreign field because of the growing number of missionaries subject to unsanitary surroundings, malignant diseases, and other stresses that would impair their usefulness or threaten their lives. In 1921, Edward M. Dodd, M.D., a former missionary to Persia, was appointed Acting Secretary and later elevated to Executive Secretary of the newly formed department. The department supervised the health of mission personnel on furlough and in the field and aided in the selection of missionary candidates. It assisted in the recruitment of medical candidates and served as a liaison for medical work in the field. Its work was continued by the Commission on Ecumenical Mission and Relations (COEMAR) under the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
Records document the broad range of interest and activity in medical missions of the principal departmental correspondents, Drs. Dodd and W.J.K. Clothier, Medical Secretary and Assistant Medical Secretary respectively, between 1921 and 1961. The collection contains the personal medical correspondence with missionary candidates and missionaries in the field and reflects both the concerns of the BFM for the welfare of its numerous workers abroad and their level of response.
While a portion of the collection focuses on the work of maintaining the health of the missionary force itself, the collection also includes a good deal of information about the work performed by medical missionaries at hospitals in the field. Correspondents in the collection include Dr. Frank Newman and Dr. Randolph Shields (a medical missionary for the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.). Their letters reflect the working conditions for medical missionaries during a time of rapid political change and uncertainty in China. The collection also includes a number of narrative and statistical reports sent from missionary doctors at Presbyterian mission hospitals and medical schools in China between 1939 and 1952, as well as letters and reports from various medical missionary organizations about the current and projected status of medical work in the country.
For additional information on the Medical Department of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., see the following collection:
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Medical Department records, 1927-1949, (1.3 cubic feet, accession number 93 0210a). This collection includes a small amount of correspondence and other material about Hackett Medical College in Canton, the Hunan Medical Center, and notes of the China Medical Council about hospitals in China in the late 1940s.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Department of Missionary Personnel.
161.5 cubic feet
Call number RG 360
Access note: Due to the denomination's access policy and personal privacy issues, some medical, educational, or personnel records found in the files of living persons may be restricted. Presbyterian Historical Society staff will review the contents and may remove certain records before providing access to the files. Due to the age of the files of most missionaries to China, few will fall under these restrictions.
The Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (PCUSA), organized in 1837, directed the foreign and domestic missionary activities of the PCUSA throughout the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Under the Board's administration missions were established in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Syria, Persia, India, Siam, Laos, China, Japan, Korea, and the United States (to the Native American, Jewish, Chinese and Japanese populations). Missions to the Native American and Jewish populations were transferred to the Board of Home Missions in 1893 and 1894 respectively. Asian-American mission work was transferred to the Board of Home Missions in 1922.
The Board remained in existence until 1958, at which time its work was transferred to the Commission on Ecumenical Mission and Relations of the newly formed UPCUSA. In 1972, as a result of reorganization within the Church, the foreign mission activities were placed under the direction of the Program Agency.
This collection of personnel records documents the lives and work of the missionary force of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., the United Presbyterian Church of North America, United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., and the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). It includes records for missionaries appointed from the mid 1880s through the present. The content of each file varies; files may contain missionary application forms, "Candidate Reference Blanks," "Missionary Profiles," school records, photographs, incoming and outgoing correspondence, medical and financial records, obituaries, and other printed material.
The collection also includes notebooks and ledgers created by the Board of Foreign Missions containing summary information about missionary personnel, including lists of medical and nursing school graduates (by school), and lists of missionary doctors and nurses. The collection does not include personnel files for missionaries appointed by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S., but series IV of the collection includes photographs of some of these missionaries.
Guide to the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Department of Missionary Personnel Records, RG 360
Index to Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Department of Missionary Personnel Records, RG 360
Note: this index provides basic biographical and service information for each missionary for whom the society holds a personnel file.
Biographical information on PCUS missionaries can be found in the following collections:
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Board of World Missions. Educational Department records, 1889-1972 (12 cubic feet, call number RT 870). This is a collection of missionary correspondence, arranged by name. Many of the files also include clippings and biographical information about the missionaries.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Board of World Missions Records, 1890-1974 (2 cubic feet, call number RT 837). This is a collection of personnel cards for Presbyterian Church in the U.S. missionaries, containing summaries of biographical and service data. The cards are arranged by mission field and alphabetically by missionary name. Information typically found on the cards includes birth and death dates, educational institutions attended, date of appointment to missionary service, date of departure for the field, field of service , and date of resignation. The cards appear to have been typed in the 1950s and 1960s with pencil additions up to 1974.
Crane family papers, 1860s-1999 (8.5 cubic feet, call number RG 477). This collection includes files created by Sophie Montgomery Crane during the research for her book on PCUS medical missions: A Legacy Remembered: A Century of Medical Missions (call number Poethig Library R 722 .C72 1998). These files include biographical information on many of the PCUS medical missionaries beyond what was included in the published work.
Bercovitz, Nathaniel, 1889-1979
Papers, 1910-1979 (bulk, 1918-1965)
0.08 cubic feet
Call number RG 402
Nathaniel Bercovitz, Sr. was born in 1889 in Constitution, Chile where his parents worked as missionaries. The family later moved to Laguna, New Mexico, where the parents served as missionaries to the Native Americans, and then to San Francisco. Bercovitz graduated from Occidental College in 1910, and received his medical degree from the University of California San Francisco in 1914.
Choosing the career of his parents, Dr. Bercovitz was appointed by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. in 1914. In 1915 he married Elva Lorine Higgins, and they sailed for Hainan, China. Dr. Bercovitz was first stationed at Kachek, where for nine years he was superintendent of the Presbyterian mission hospital. In 1926 he was transferred, and became superintendent of the American Presbyterian Hospital at Hoihow. His work was both medical and evangelistic in nature.
Dr. Bercovitz was put under house arrest by the Japanese from 1939 to 1941, at which time he was sent back to the United States. During the war years he served as a civilian physician for naval trainees at Occidental College in Los Angeles. He returned to Hainan in 1946 to continue his work as superintendent of the American Hospital in Hoihow, as well as the Hainan orphanage and leprosarium. He also supervised the medical and relief program of the Church Committee for Relief in Asia. In 1950 he was again put under house arrest, this time by Communist Chinese forces. He continued under house arrest for nearly two years, 10 months, most of this time confined to a small room at the hospital.
After gaining permission to return to America in 1953, Dr. Bercovitz served as medical adviser to the Synod of Southern California until his retirement in 1959. He then continued as medical director for Westminster Gardens retirement home for missionaries, and was also an active board member of several Presbyterian retirement homes and hospitals in Southern California. He was Vice Moderator of General Assembly in 1954. His wife, Elva, died in 1965, and in 1966 he married Ruth (Hislaw) Walline, widow of Edwin Walline of the China mission. Bercovitz died in 1979.
This collection consists primarily of Dr. Bercovitz's writings, correspondence, and publications during his tenure as a missionary in China, as well as numerous photographic records of his clinical cases; notes contain personal commentaries on readings, Chinese politics, and missionary work. Also included in the collection are several clippings and publications pertaining to Wang Ngo Lim, M.D., who worked under Dr. Bercovitz.
For additional information on Dr. Nathaniel Bercovitz, see the following item:
Bercovitz, Nathaniel. “Presbyterian Medical Missionary Work at Hoi How, China” (1 page typescript, call number NT8.3 B463ph).
Bradshaw, Homer V. (Homer Vernon), 1899-
Papers, 1937-1982 (bulk: 1948-1950)
0.50 cubic feet
Call number RG 188
Homer Vernon Bradshaw was appointed by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. as a medical missionary to the South China Mission in 1928. The majority of his career was spent at Linhsien Station where he headed the medical staff of the Van Norden Memorial Hospital for Men and the Brooks Memorial Hospital for Women. He later taught surgery in the Hackett Medical College in Canton. From 1942 to 1945, he served in the U.S. Air Force as a flight surgeon with Chennault's Flying Tigers in China. Following the war, he returned to missionary service in China in his former capacity. In 1951, he and his wife, Wilda Hockenberry Bradshaw, were arrested by the Chinese Communists and incarcerated until their release in 1955. Bradshaw retired from mission work in 1964.
This collection consists primarily of Homer Vernon Bradshaw's correspondence, written between 1937 and 1957, with the bulk of the letters dating from 1948 to 1950. Included are sermons about his experiences while in prison and clippings and miscellaneous material relating to his work at the Van Norden Memorial Hospital for Men and the Brooks Memorial Hospital for Women in Linhsien.
For additional information on Dr. Homer V. Bradshaw, see the following items:
Bradshaw, Homer V. Interview of Wilda and Homer V. Bradshaw by Margaret Deck (call number CASSETTE TAPE 930). There is a transcript of this interview as well (call number MS C272 (930)).
Homer V. Bradshaw papers, 1947-1950 (1 folder, call number MS B7286h). This collection includes correspondence regarding the administration of the mission hospitals in Linhsien and Dr. Bradshaw’s incarceration following the Communist Revolution.
Carpenter, Alice M. (Alice Margaret), 1897-1985
Papers, ca. 1900-ca. 1986 (bulk: 1920-1940)
0.50 cubic feet
Call number RG 206
Alice Margaret Carpenter was appointed to the South China Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. in 1922. Following two years of language study, she served as a teacher at the Ming Sum School for the Blind from 1924-1937. She taught English in Canton at the Pooi Ying Middle School and the Turner Training School of Nursing from 1925-1937 and 1938-1941 respectively. In 1943, she was evacuated from Canton and returned to the United States; she resigned from missionary service in 1945.
This collection consists of correspondence, photographs, clippings, and other miscellaneous items which primarily document Carpenter’s missionary service in China from 1922 through the early 1940s, though some later materials are also included. Her correspondence from the late 1930s is particularly rich in describing the war in China, notably the bombing of Canton, from 1937 until her evacuation in 1943. Records reflect her work as an English teacher at Ming Sum School for the Blind, Pooi Ying Middle School, and the Julia M. Turner Training School for Nurses, Canton, China.
Crawford, Francis Randolph, 1884-1966 and Crawford, Martha Paxton Moffett, 1891-1981
1.25 cubic feet
Call number RG 437
Francis Randolph Crawford was born in 1884 in Kernstown, Virginia. While in college at Washington and Lee University, he made the decision to become a medical missionary. He attended Johns Hopkins Medical School, graduating in 1911, and then continued his preparation as a surgeon at hospitals in Pittsburgh, Clifton Springs, New York, and Germany.
Dr. Crawford received his appointment from the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S., and in February 1914, he left Germany and traveled through Switzerland and Italy en route to China. He arrived in April and assumed his position as chief surgeon at the Mid-China Mission in Kiangyin. In May of 1917, Francis Crawford married Martha Paxton "Paxie" Moffett. In September of that same year, the Crawfords moved to the Kashing Hospital, the largest Presbyterian Church in the U.S. mission hospital in China. Dr. Crawford served as the hospital's superintendent for ten years. Paxton Crawford engaged in evangelistic work for the mission.
By the mid-1920s the political situation in China was rapidly deteriorating. In 1927, under pressure to leave, the Crawfords left Kashing and went to Shanghai. After the Kashing mission compound was taken over by soldiers, they decided to return to the United States, where Dr. Crawford ran a private practice for two and a half years. In 1930, the Crawfords returned to mission work in China, serving until 1933. The Crawfords returned once more to the United States and Dr. Crawford again took up private practice. He retired in 1965. Dr. Crawford died in 1966, and Paxton Crawford died in 1981.
This collection consists primarily of correspondence and photographs. The bulk of the correspondence is addressed to Francis Crawford’s parents and sister and describes the work at the Kiangyin and Kashing Hospitals, as well as civil, political, and military events in China. The collection also includes Francis Crawford's 1914 diary describing his travels through Europe to China; a 1919 travel narrative by another missionary, entitled "A Trip Down the Dzein Daung River;" and a pamphlet on the Rev. Hugh Watt White. Photographs, photographic postcards, and negatives in the collection depict Dr. Crawford’s journey to China, the Elizabeth Blake Hospital in Soochow, the staff of the Kashing Hospital, and Crawford family members.
Dobson, William Hervie, 1870-1965
Papers, 1893-1964 (bulk: 1897-1904)
1.00 cubic foot
Call number RG 204
William Hervie Dobson was born in 1870 in Vineland, New Jersey. In 1897 he was sent as a surgeon to the Yeungkong Station of the South China Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. The first Presbyterian missionary to learn the Yeungkong dialect, Dr. Dobson worked in the Canton region as evangelist, surgeon, and teacher until 1940, when he was honorably retired from the mission field. He was married in 1899 to Effie W. Moore (d.1916). At the time of his death, Dr. Dobson was survived by his two sons: Hervey and Connelly.
The collection consists of correspondence, daybooks, photographs, and one folder of miscellaneous material. The bulk of the collection covers the early years of Dr. Dobson's work in the Yeungkong mission station and at the Forman Memorial Hospital (1897-1904). The correspondence is highly descriptive and contains Dr. Dobson's first impressions of China as well as narrative accounts of the daily life and duties of a missionary doctor. Included in this series is an account of the Boxer Rebellion. The majority of the photographs in the collection date from 1901 to 1904.
For more information about Dr. William H. Dobson, see the following:
William Hervie Dobson papers, 1898-1956 (0.5 cubic feet, call number SPP 91 (10 0621)). This collection contains additional material documenting Dobson’s work as a missionary in Yeungkong. Included are “dear friends” letters and news sheets describing the work of the station, circa 1898 to 1940; correspondence received by Dr. Dobson during the same period; several of Dr. Dobson’s writings, including published medical articles; printed reports from Yeungkong station and Forman Memorial Hospital; a 1940 publication on the 38th anniversary of Forman Memorial Hospital and Dr. Dobson’s retirement; South China Mission reports; a memorial minute for Dr. Mary Hannah Fulton; and assorted clippings and photographs.
Dobson, William H. “History of South China Mission,” 1937-1940 (call number MS D659hs). This is a typed draft and notes for a history of the mission compiled by Dr. Dobson. It includes information on the medical work being done at the mission and notes on work with lepers.
0.33 cubic feet
Call number SPP 70 (08 0608)
Dr. Goldsby King became the city physician of Selma, Alabama in 1885. Dr. King, his wife, Annie G. King, and their two daughters, Annie G. King and Dulie A. King, were members of the First Presbyterian Church of Selma, Alabama. The Kings provided financial support to the foreign mission work and to the missionaries of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S., and were responsible for the establishment of three mission hospitals in China, Brazil, and the Belgian Congo.
Charlotte Audrey Dunlap was born in Simpson, South Carolina, in 1894. She was trained at the St. Joseph’s Training School for Nurses in Baltimore, Maryland, graduating in 1916 and passing the State Board examinations in 1919. She worked at St. Joseph’s Hospital as operating room superintendent and did private nursing. In 1922 she was appointed as a missionary to China by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. After one year of language study at the Nanking Language School, and another year doing hospital work and continuing to study the language at Sutsien Station, she was assigned to the Goldsby King Hospital, in Chinkiang. She remained at the hospital until shortly after the Communist Revolution, when she requested an exit permit and left China. Dunlap also served as a missionary in Taiwan from 1953 to 1965.
This collection consists primarily of correspondence from Charlotte A. Dunlap to Mrs. Annie G. King and Miss Annie G. King, 1925-1965. Dunlap's letters from Chinkiang chronicle Goldsby King Memorial Hospital, her work, the Kings’ financial support and friendship, and China's political climate. A few 1930s annual reports, some correspondence from other Chinkiang missionaries, and a 1950 photograph further document the Goldsby King Memorial Hospital. Included as well is some correspondence from other PCUS missionaries assigned to China, Japan, Korea, Brazil, and the Belgian Congo, 1920s-1960s.
Logan, Florence Leila, 1897-1997
Papers, circa 1910-1954
0.33 cubic feet
Call number RG 241
Florence Leila Logan was born in 1897 in Rhodes, Iowa. She graduated in 1919 from the University of Washington with a degree in journalism. She also attended the Bible Institute of Los Angeles and Moody Bible Institute, 1919-1921. Influenced by a Missionary Education Movement Conference, she applied to the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and was assigned to Paotingfu Station of the North China Mission in 1921. Logan served as an evangelist there until her repatriation on the S.S. Gripsholm in 1942. She returned after the war, but was forced to leave after the Communist takeover. She served in Taiwan until her retirement in 1962. She published leaflets and songbooks in Chinese, as well as articles in English. She also translated for publication the works of The Rev. Andrew Gih, a noted Chinese evangelist.
The collection consists of home letters and photographs depicting missionary life and work with emphasis on evangelistic work. Home letters of Logan comprise the bulk of the collection, but there are also letters from several medical missionaries, including John Herman Wylie, M.D., (1923), Maud Mackey, M.D.,(1937), and Myrtle J. Hinkhouse, M.D. (1939-1940), included. The photographs (ca. 1910-1941) depict both the foreign and Chinese staffs of the mission, Chinese Christians, and the general population. There are also pictures of hospitals, dispensaries and clinics; missionary doctors and nurses in Paotingfu and Peking; and graduates of the North China Union Medical College for Women. Of note are a series of tinted photographic postcards showing the facilities and staff of Hodge Memorial Hospital in Paotingfu in 1931.
0.50 cubic feet
Call number RG 177
Access note: this collection is also available on microfilm (call number MF POS 1608)
Divie Bethune McCartee (1820-1900) was appointed by the Board of Foreign Missions as a missionary to China in 1843. He arrived in Ningpo in 1844 and was primarily involved in medial and evangelistic work. In 1853, Dr. McCartee married Juana M. Knight, a fellow missionary also serving in Ningpo. Besides his missionary responsibilities, Dr. McCartee performed consular services in China until a regular consulate was established there in 1857, and in 1862 he was appointed vice-consul to Japan.
The McCartees returned to Ningpo in 1865 to resume their missionary work. In 1872, they were transferred to the Shanghai mission but resigned shortly thereafter so that Dr. McCartee could join the Shanghai consular staff as interpreter and assessor to the Mixed Court. Until 1877, Dr. McCartee served as professor in the Imperial University of Tokyo and acted as secretary of the Chinese legation in that city.
In 1885, Dr. McCartee was appointed counselor to the Japanese legation in Washington, D.C. Two years later the McCartees were reappointed by the Board of Foreign Missions to the Japan Mission, where they served until Dr. McCartee’s retirement in 1900.
Dr. McCartee was a prolific writer whose published works included treatises on Asian history, linguistics, natural science, medicine, politics and religion.
This collection consists primarily of the correspondence of Divie Bethune McCartee and his wife, Juana Knight McCartee, 1854-1906. The correspondence is mostly outgoing and includes letters to the Board of Foreign Missions, to Henry William Rankin, the McCartees’ nephew, and to Franklin Knight, Juana McCartee’s father. Also included is correspondence relating to Dr. McCartee’s consular service. While the letters do not contain extensive discussion of Dr. McCartee’s medical work they document the efforts by one of the earliest Presbyterian medical missionaries to set up the denomination’s first permanent mission station and its first medical dispensary in China.
For more information about Dr. Divie Bethune McCartee, see the following collections and publication:
Rankin family papers, 1842-1935 (2 cubic feet, call number RG 176). This collection includes notes on the history of mission work in China and Japan by Henry William Rankin; some of these notes focus on the work of Divie Bethune McCartee.
McCartee photographs (call number Gal. III M1268d). Portraits of Divie Bethune McCartee and Juana Knight McCartee.
Speer, Robert. A missionary pioneer in the Far East : a memorial of Divie Bethune McCartee. New York, Chicago [etc.]: Fleming H. Revell Company, c1922 (call number BV 3400 .M122 1922).
McKillican, Janet Christie, 1854-1943
0.20 cubic feet (4 folders)
Call number SPP 12 (99 0810, 99 1124, 00 0225a, and 00 0823b)
Janet Christie McKillican was born in 1854 in Van Kleek Hill, Ontario, Canada. She attended the Farrand Training School for Nurses in Detroit, Michigan. In September, 1888, she was appointed to the North China Mission by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A . She arrived in Tientsin, China in November, 1888. McKillican was initially assigned to medical work, but in her second year in the field, was asked to take up evangelistic work for women. She taught at the Union Bible School for Women in Peking and worked in mission stations in Paotingfu and Shunteh. Although evangelism was her primary endeavor in China, she also taught at the Union Training School for Nurses, and during the Boxer Rebellion, she worked in the International Hospital in Peking. After 38 years in China, she retired and returned to Van Kleek Hill. She died in October, 1943.
This collection of correspondence and photographs documents Janet McKillican’s work as a missionary in China from 1888 to 1926. The letters describe her preparation for missionary service, her journey to China, and her work at mission stations in Peking and Paotingfu. The letters are very descriptive and paint a vivid picture of the daily life of a China missionary. Letters from 1900 describe the effect of the Boxer Rebellion on the missionaries in North China. The collection includes typescripts of letters from 1891 to 1899. Other materials in the collection include photographs of McKillican’s fellow missionaries and of Chinese patients treated at mission hospitals, and a 1943 memorial minute for McKillican.
Papers, 1900-1984 (bulk: 1917-1964)
3.00 cubic feet
Call number RG 199
Frank R. Millican (1883-1961) and his wife Aimee Boddy Millican (1884-1974) were Methodist missionaries from 1907-1915 in Hunan, China. They were granted a transfer to the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.'s mission at Ningpo in 1916. From 1917 to 1929, Frank Millican served as Principal of the Presbyterian Boys' High School and later the Union Middle School. In the 1930s, he translated, edited and supervised the distribution of literature for the Christian Literature Society, Shanghai. Aimee Millican started a Christian Broadcasting station in Shanghai. Due to increasing political tensions in China, Rev. Millican returned alone to Shanghai in 1941 from furlough. He was interned by the Japanese until 1945. The Communist takeover forced the Millicans' transfer to the Philippines in 1950. Rev. Millican taught three years at Union Theological Seminary in Manila and at Silliman University, and Aimee Millican resumed her broadcasting work. The Millicans retired from missionary service in 1953.
Edith Frances Millican (1914-1985), their daughter, earned her M.D. from the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia and was appointed as a missionary in 1941. War delayed her sailing so she joined the staff of the Board of National Mission's Embudo Presbyterian Hospital in New Mexico. In 1943, she went to China as physician to the 14th Air Force Fighter Squadron, later working with refugees in Hengyang, Kweiyang, Pichieh, and Kweichow. In 1946 she took charge of the Chenhsien Hospital, Hunan. Unable to return to China after her 1948 furlough, she took a residency at the Women's Medical College, then returned to Embudo in 1951. In 1956 she worked at St. Luke's Hospital in Spokane, Washington, before becoming resident physician at the Mora Valley Medical Unit in Cleveland, New Mexico in 1957. She resigned from the Board in 1964 and entered private practice in New Mexico. She died in 1985.
Records document the Millicans' missionary experiences in China, and to a lesser extent in the Philippines, emphasizing the difficulties of their work during the Sino-Japanese War of the late 1930s and during the post-World War II years. Edith Millican’s correspondence documents her medical work in China during and after World War II, giving insight into the training and experiences of, and opportunities for, American women doctors. Also included are photographs showing Presbyterian mission facilities, fellow missionaries, and portraits of Millican family members.
For additional information on Dr. Edith Millican, see the following publication:
Millican, Edith F. Where the cranes fly: the adventures of Edith F. Millican, M.D. in China, 1943-1948 : a medical adventure under the Presbyterian Church in war-torn China. n.p., c1987 (call number FOLIO R 722.32 .M55 1987).
Drexel University College of Medicine Archives and Special Collections, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, holds the following related collection:
Edith Millican, M.D. letters, [1943-1948]
Accession number 22
Mills, Annetta Eugenia Thompson, 1853-1929
Papers, 1883-1938, 1968
0.04 cubic feet (2 folders)
Call number SPP 66 (06 0506b)
Annetta Eugenia Thompson was born in Portage, New York, in 1853. As a young woman she taught her brother, who was deaf, and when he was accepted at the Western New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes in Rochester, New York, she accompanied him. Her work with deaf students impressed the school’s director, and she was hired as a teacher at the school. While there, she met Rev. Charles Rogers Mills, a widower and missionary to China for the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. whose son was enrolled at the school. In 1884, she accompanied Rev. Mills back to China and they were married. She continued her work with deaf students in China, teaching her first class of students in 1887 in Tengchow. After her husband’s death in 1895, she suspended the work of the school and engaged in evangelistic missionary work so she could receive a salary from the Board of Foreign Missions. During this time, she continued to raise funds to reopen the school. In 1898, she and her family moved to Chefoo, where she reopened the school with a class of seven students. She continued to run the school until her retirement in 1923. Her niece, Anita Carter, succeeded her as the school’s director. Mills was living in Nanking with her son Samuel, who was also a missionary, during the Nanking incident of 1927, and evacuated the city along with the other foreign residents. She then returned to the United States, and lived in Chicago with her other son, Roger, until her death in 1929.
This collection consists of photocopies of 1968 typescripts of two of Annetta Thompson's 1883 letters to her parents, a photocopy of a 1968 typescript of Charles Rogers Mills' 1883 letter to Annetta Thompson's parents, a photocopy of Anita E. Carter's 1938 Sketch of the Life of Annetta Thompson Mills, Founder of The Chefoo School for the Deaf, and several annotated photographs mounted on board primarily documenting the Mills, the Chefoo station of the Shantung Mission, and the School for the Deaf at Chefoo. One photograph is of Mills working with a student, another is of a group of students in front of the school. Photographs date from 1890 to 1901.
For more information about Annetta Eugenia Thompson Mills, see the following:
Mills family papers, 1856-1975 (1.00 cubic foot, accession number 02 0322b). This collection includes memoirs and notes by Samuel Mills, Annetta E.T. Mills’ son. In his memoirs he describes his life growing up in a missionary family and talks briefly about the work of both of his parents. The collection also includes numerous photographs of the Mills family, several of which feature Annetta E.T. Mills.
The Presbyterian Historical Society also holds the following publication:
Carter, Anita E. Sketch of the life of Annetta Thompson Mills, founder of the Chefoo School for the Deaf. Chefoo: James McMullan & Co.,  (call number MR3 .M624s). Note: this is the pamphlet which can be found as a photocopy in the Annetta Eugenia Thompson Mills papers.
The Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts holds the following related collection:
Annetta Thompson Mills Papers, 1857-1993
1.25 linear feet
Collection number: MS 455
Morgan, Lorenzo Seymour, 1875-1955 and Morgan, Ruth Bennett, 1877-1955
1.33 cubic feet
Accession numbers 999.104, 2000.026, 2001.045
Unprocessed; collection is open for research
Lorenzo Seymour Morgan was born in Illinois in 1875. Morgan attended Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, where he became involved in the World’s Student Movement, which led to his interest in medical missionary work. He attended Johns Hopkins Medical School, where he met Ruth Bennett, a fellow medical student, who would become his wife in the summer of 1904. That same year, the Morgans were both appointed as missionaries by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. They arrived in Chinkiang, China early in 1905 and studied the language there for a short period before being transferred to the Tsingkiangpu station of the North Kiangsu Mission, where they assisted Dr. James Woods with the station’s medical work. In 1908, they were transferred to Haichow to help complete the Ellen Lavine Graham Hospital which was then under construction. In addition to medical work at the mission station, Lorenzo Morgan was active in plague and famine relief in North China. In 1932, the Morgans transferred to the Presbyterian Hospital in Chinkiang. In 1934, they ended their connection with the Southern Presbyterian Mission, transferring to the Methodist Mission Board, and moving to Wuhu, Anhui Province, where they worked in the General Hospital. Ruth Morgan returned to the United States due to ill health in 1941. In November, 1942, Lorenzo Morgan, along with the entire foreign staff of the Wuhu General Hospital, was interned by the Japanese. He was moved to Shanghai, where he remained in Japanese custody until October, 1945, at which time he returned to Wuhu General Hospital. Lorenzo Morgan retired from the field and returned to the United States in 1946.
The collection includes original photos and photo postcards from the Morgans' medical mission work in China, including images of patients, hospitals, medical staff, plague prevention work in Tatung (north of Peking) in 1910-1911 and 1918, and famine relief work. The collection also includes transcripts of letters written by the Morgans to family members; and documentation of a trip to China in 2000 taken by the Morgans’ son Carrel Morgan and his family.
Yale Divinity School Library, New Haven, Connecticut, holds the following related collection:
Lorenzo and Ruth Bennett Morgan Papers, 1862-2001
21 linear feet
Record Group No. 126
1.50 cubic feet
Call number RG 370
Carl Wadsworth Scovel was born in 1866. He attended Hamilton and Roberts Colleges and Auburn Theological Seminary, graduating in 1894. In 1900 he married Louise Gilman Kiehle, a graduate of the Curry School of Public Expression in Boston. At this time he was serving as pastor of the Babcock Brown Memorial Church in Baltimore. Their only child, Frederick, was born there in 1902. In 1912 Scovel accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church in Cortland, NY; he served that congregation until his death in 1932.
Frederick Gilman Scovel entered Hamilton College in 1921. He went on to take his medical degree at Cornell, where he met a nurse named Myra Scott. They married after his graduation in 1929 and the following year they and their newborn son sailed for China as employees of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
After language training in Peking, the Scovels were assigned to a hospital in Shantung Province. In 1943 the entire family, which had grown to include four more children, was interned by the Japanese. After six months' detention the Japanese deported them to the United States; Myra Scovel gave birth to a sixth child within hours after their ship docked in New York Harbor.
In 1946 the Scovels returned to China, this time to Anhwei Province. They transferred to the Hackett Medical Center in Canton in 1948, remaining there until 1951 when they were forced out by the Chinese Communists. In 1953 they began a six-year term of service to the India Mission, working as professor and librarian at the Christian Medical College in Ludhiana. In 1959 they returned to the United States for the last time. Dr. Scovel began a private practice in Stony Point, NY, and Myra Scovel wrote several books, some based on her family's China and India experiences and some written for children.
This collection is largely made up of papers of four of the Scovels; Carl and Louise Scovel and their son and daughter-in-law Frederick and Myra Scovel. There are also a few materials from Frederick and Myra Scovel's children, and one diary kept by Carl Scovel's brother Louie. Materials documenting Frederick and Myra Scovel’s work as missionaries in China include diaries; personal reports and letters from Myra Scovel; correspondence sent by Frederick and Myra Scovel to family members; and articles on China and on medicine kept by Frederick Scovel.
The Presbyterian Historical Society holds a series of slides taken by Frederick Scovel of medical mission facilities in China (call number SLIDES B47 (1-23)). Note that the slides are not labeled, so exact locations and dates are unknown. The society also has a number of Myra Scovel’s published works, though none of these provide extensive information about the couple’s medical work.
The University of Oregon Libraries, Special Collections & University Archives, Eugene, Oregon holds the following related collection:
Frederick and Myra Scovel Papers, 1930-1974
2 linear feet
Collection number Ax707
A copy of the finding aid to these papers can be found in the Scovel family papers collection at the Presbyterian Historical Society.
Shields, Randolph T., 1877-1958
0.05 cubic feet
Accession number 991.26
Unprocessed; collection is open for research
Randolph Tucker Shields was born in Natchez, Mississippi, in 1877. He graduated from Washington and Lee University in 1898 and went on to study medicine at the University College of Medicine in Richmond, Virginia, receiving his M.D. in 1901. In 1904, he was appointed by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. to be a missionary to the Mid-China Mission. Before setting off for the field, he married Ella Randolph Page. The Shields were first stationed in Tunghsiang, where they studied the language and began their missionary work. After three years, they were transferred to Soochow, where Dr. Shields taught medical students at Elizabeth Blake Hospital. The following year, they were transferred to Nanking. Dr. Shields was part of the effort to establish the East China Union Medical College in Nanking, which, along with the Drum Tower Hospital, formed the medical department of the University of Nanking. Dr. Shields served as the Medical College’s dean and taught courses in anatomy, embryology, and histology. In 1917, he was assigned to the Cheeloo University College of Medicine (later called the School of Medicine of Shantung Christian University) in Tsinan. There he taught embryology and histology, and practiced obstetrics and parasitology. He served as the Medical School’s dean from 1926 to 1935. He remained at the University until his retirement in 1941.
The collection includes a small amount of general correspondence; writings by Dr. Shields on missionary medicine and on medicine in China; and two typescripts: "Changing China from Within," 1936, and "Co-operation in Medical Work," 1914. The collection also contains a number of printed materials from Cheeloo University, including reports of the School of Medicine for scattered years between 1926 and 1936; lists of graduates of the School of Medicine; a directory of Cheeloo University and foreign residents in Tsinan, 1939; and several Cheeloo University calendars.
For additional information on Dr. Randolph Shields, see the following collection:
United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Commission on Ecumenical Mission and Relations. Medical Department. Records, 1921-1961 (5.00 cubic feet, call number RG 144). Correspondence from Randolph Shields is located in Series 6: Missionary/Colleague Correspondence.
The Presbyterian Historical Society also holds the following publication:
Shields, Randolph T. “Medical education in China.” n.p.,  (Reprinted from The Presbyterian Survey, Aug. 1936) (call number PAM FOL R 812 .C5 S5 1936).
Tootell, George T., 1886-
0.25 cubic feet (18 folders)
Call number SPP 34 (86 1007)
George Thomas Tootell was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1886. He received his medical training at the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery. In 1912, he and his wife, Anna Eleanor (Kidder) Tootell, were appointed by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. to serve in Hunan, China. They arrived in 1913, and after a period of language study in Nanking, Dr. Tootell began medical work at Changteh Hospital in Hunan. In addition to his long tenure at Changteh Hospital, he also served as interim superintendent at Chenchow Hospital from 1917 to 1919 and from 1923 to 1924; as Director of medical work for the Hunan Mission from 1928 to 1929; as surgeon at the Yale Hospital in China from 1928 to 1929; and as Field Director for the International Red Cross from 1937 to 1939. In 1942 and 1943, he provided medical service to members of the Flying Tigers air squadron.
In 1952, the Tootells retired from missionary service, though Dr. Tootell continued his medical practice. He worked as an obstetrician in Berkeley, California, and served as ship’s surgeon for American President Lines during several voyages to the Far East.
This collection consists of typescript notes for memoirs, based on letters written by the Tootells and others between 1931 and 1950, during their work as missionaries in Hunan. The notes describe the life of a medical missionary, including hospital work, outcalls, other travels around China, activities of fellow missionaries, and, notably, political events in the region and interactions with the Chinese people. The collection includes an index to subjects and people mentioned in Dr. Tootell’s memoirs. This index indicates that the memoirs span the years 1913 to 1950; the notes present in the collection span the years 1931 to 1950. The collection also includes a memorial to George Tootell and a summary of his professional activities.
For additional information on Dr. George Tootell, see the following publication:
Tootell, George Thomas. Hazards of the mission field. Duarte, CA, n.p.  (call number NT8.3 T619h).
Venable, Wade Hampton, 1867-1952
1.00 cubic foot (14 volumes)
Accession numbers 96579 96580 96581 96582 96583 96584 96585 96586 96587 96588 96589 96590 96591 96592
Unprocessed; collection is open for research
Wade Hampton Venable was born near Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1867. He attended the University of Virginia, graduating with a degree in Latin and mathematics. He received his M.D. from the same university in 1889. After graduation, he received postgraduate training at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, and several hospitals in New York and Connecticut. In 1893, he was appointed as a missionary to China by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. He sailed in the fall of that year. On the same ship was Eliza Talbot, whom he would marry shortly after their arrival in Shanghai. For the first year and a half of their stay in China, the Venables lived in Sinchang, near Kashing, studying the language. In 1895, the couple moved to Kashing and began providing medical treatment to that city’s residents. After years of conducting medical work out of modified Chinese houses, the station’s first hospital building was constructed in 1908. The Venables continued their work at Kashing until 1917, when they had to travel to the United States because of Dr. Venable’s health. They returned to China in 1919, taking up medical work in Kuling, where they treated many foreign missionaries as well as Chinese patients. The Venables retired from the field in 1927.
The collection consists of diaries kept by Dr. Wade Venable between 1893 and 1952. The diary entries, while typically quite brief, document Venable’s professional, social, and cultural activities throughout his career as a missionary and after his return to the United States. Most entries include a note of the day’s weather, and many discuss visits with patients and give brief information on the medical care they received. Other information found in the entries includes lectures and musical performances the Venables attended; social events with colleagues and friends; attendance at church and religious meetings; and the Venables’ travels.
0.25 cubic feet
Accession number 03 1216e
Unprocessed; collection is open for research
Edgar Woods, Jr. was one of the pioneering medical missionaries of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. He was appointed as a missionary in 1887, arriving at Tsingkiangpu station in Kiangsu Province. His brother, the Rev. Henry Woods, an evangelistic missionary, preceded him to the station, having arrived in 1884. Another brother, Dr. James Baker Woods, was also assigned to the station in 1894. Dr. Edgar Woods was forced to retire from the field in 1899 because of his wife’s health. Dr. James Woods remained in China until 1941.
The collection includes color photocopies of family photographs, genealogical information about the Woods family, photocopies of excerpts from Edgar Woods' diary, speech given by Woods' granddaughter, Brooke Woods Frautschi, on the occasion of the anniversary of the hospital founded by Woods in China, and a 2002 pamphlet about the history of the hospital.
1.50 cubic feet
Accession numbers 991.56, 991.81, 994.009, 997.114, 999.021
Unprocessed; collection is open for research
George Clarkson Worth was born in 1867 in Wilmington, North Carolina. He graduated from the University of North Carolina, and then received his medical degree from the University of Virginia. In 1895 he was appointed as a missionary by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. He married Emma Chadbourn in July, 1895, and the following month the two sailed for China. After two years in Wusih, the Worths were transferred to Kiangyin, where they remained until retirement from missionary service in 1936. For much of his time in Kiangyin, Dr. Worth was the only missionary physician, though he trained a number of Chinese physicians.
The Worths’ daughter, Ruth Worth, was a medical technician who served as a missionary in China from 1932 to 1951, and later served as a missionary in the Congo/Zaire. The Worths’ two sons were also missionaries; Charles William Worth served as an evangelistic missionary in China, and William Chadworth Worth served as a missionary in Congo/Zaire.
This collection consists of correspondence, photographs, and two scrapbooks kept by Ruth Worth documenting her missionary work in Africa and China. The collection also includes personal correspondence of Dr. George Worth, Sr., written between 1909 and 1936, and correspondence to and from the Reverend Charles Worth in China, 1927-1936.
Papers, 1922-circa 1981 (bulk: 1922-1954)
1.50 cubic feet
Call number RG 234
Theodore M. Yates was born in England in 1894, the son of a Salvation Army officer who came to the United States in 1895. Yates attended Richmond Academy in Augusta, Georgia and earned his M.D. at the University of Georgia in 1919. He did his internship at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City, where he met Jean Kammerer from Toronto, Canada, who was attending the Roosevelt Training School for Nurses. In 1922 the Yateses were married and in 1923 went to China, under appointment by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.. The Yateses were assigned to the Hwai Yuan Station of the Kiangan Mission. A son, James Kammerer Yates, was born on December 22, 1923, and a daughter, Christina Jean Yates, on October 20, 1926. In 1941, due to war conditions, Mrs. Yates and the children returned to the United States, to be followed in 1942 by Dr. Yates on the S.S. Gripsholm. The Yateses resigned from missionary service in 1948.
The bulk of the Yates Family Papers consists of the letters of Dr. and Mrs. Yates to their relatives in the United States and Canada and to each other when they were apart. There are also several letters from other missionaries and Chinese workers. The correspondence provides a vivid picture of the life of a missionary family and the political, social and medical problems of missionary work in the turbulent China of the 1920s and 1930s. The collection also includes a diary kept by Jean Yates in 1933 and several photographs.
Annual reports of the Board of Foreign Missions (BFM) of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and of the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions (ECFM) of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. provide a broad picture of the work done by Presbyterian missionaries throughout China. They are a good source of information about the missions’ medical efforts. The reports typically include summaries and statistics of the medical services conducted at mission hospitals and clinics, often describing medical work at each station. They are also useful for tracking dates of appointment, transfers, furloughs, and retirements of medical missionaries, as a supplement to information that can be found in personnel records (see the Agency Records section of this guide.) The society’s holdings include:
- Board of Foreign Missions annual reports, 1833-1957 (call number NE6 P92fa).
These reports are also included in the volumes of PCUSA General Assembly minutes housed in the society’s reading room (call number Ref BX 8951 .A3).
- Executive Committee of Foreign Missions reports, 1862-1950 (call number NE6 P918ea).
These reports are also included in the volumes of PCUS General Assembly minutes housed in the society’s reading room (call number Ref BX 8961 .A3).
Minutes of the China Council, the PCUSA’s coordinating body for the China Mission after 1910, document the policies of the mission, personnel and funding decisions, and cooperation of PCUSA missionaries with other denominations’ efforts in China. The society’s holdings include:
- China Council. Minutes, 1910-1950 (call number MR7 PA CM v. 1-8).
Women’s missionary societies played an important role in the financial support of missionaries and mission institutions, and were particularly important in their support of women missionaries. The reports published by these societies can be useful for tracing the funds that went toward the construction of hospitals, to their major equipment needs, and to medical missionary staff. Women’s missionary society reports include:
- Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church (PCUSA). Annual reports, 1872-1923. Philadelphia: Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church (call number NE6 P928).
- Women's Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church (PCUSA). Annual reports, 1871-1923. New York: Women's Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church (call number NE6 P927na).
Missionary societies and boards published magazines to inform supporters at home about the work being conducted in the field, and to raise funds for its continuation. These magazines included stories written by and about the missionaries, including physicians and nurses serving in China. These narratives can serve as a supplement to the information about medical mission work found in publications of the denominations’ mission boards and in reports and bulletins published by medical institutions. Missionary periodicals in the society’s holdings include:
- Home Mission Herald. Atlanta, GA: Executive Committee of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S., 1908-1911 (call number BV 2650 .P6 H65). This periodical is also available on microfilm (call number MF POS. 905).
- Missionary Survey. Richmond, VA: Presbyterian Church in the U.S., 1911-1923 (call number BV 2570 .A1 M41). This periodical is also available on microfilm (call number MF POS. 1191, r. 1-12).
- Presbyterian Survey. [Atlanta, Ga., etc.: Presbyterian Pub. House, etc.], 1924-1995 (call number BV 2570 .A1 P64). This is an official publication of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.
- Foreign Missionary. New York: Mission House, 1850-1886 (call number BV 2570 .A1 F7).
- Missionary Chronicle. New York: Mission House, 1842-1949 (call number BV 2570 .A1 M67). This periodical is also available on microfilm (call number MF POS. 852 r.1-3).
- Women's Work for Women in the Mission Field. New York: Women's Foreign Missionary Societies of the Presbyterian Church, 1871-1923 (call number BV 2570 .A1 W9).
- Women and Missions. New York: Woman's Committees of the Boards of Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1924–1946 ( call number BV 2570 .A1 W85).
- Outreach. New York: Woman's Committees of the Boards of Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A ., 1947–1958 (call number BV 2570 .A1 O93).
Publications on Presbyterian medical missions (in general) and Presbyterian medical missions and medical education in China include:
- Halsey, Abram Woodruff. Go and tell John: a sketch of the medical and philanthropic work of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. New York: Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 1914 (call number NT8 H165g).
- Kerr, John G. Medical missions at home and abroad. San Francisco: Bancroft, 1878 (call number NT8 K463mh).
- Kerr, John G. Medical missions. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1895 (call number NT8 K463m).
- Penrose, V.F. Hospitals in China. Philadelphia Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, n.d. (call number NT8.3 P386h).
- Peter, William Wesley. Broadcasting health in China: the field and methods of public health work in the missionary enterprise. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press, 1926 (call number NT8.3 P441b).
- Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Presbyterian missionaries and hospitals, 1926, 1930-1936 (call number NT8 P92ma).
- Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Women's Foreign Missionary Society. Hospitals in China, India, Korea, Persia, Siam, and Syria. Philadelphia: Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church, 1912-1914. (Medical Mission Series) (call number NT8 P92whc).
- Selden, Charles C. Work among the Chinese insane and some of its results. Essay read before the Canton Missionary Conference. Canton, China: Baptist Publication Society, 1903 (call number NT8.3 Se48w). (This pamphlet describes the work of John G. Kerr at his hospital for the insane in Canton.)
- Shields, Randolph T. Medical education in China. n.p.,  (Reprinted from The Presbyterian Survey, Aug. 1936) (call number PAM FOL R 812 .C5 S5 1936).
Annual reports and minutes of the China missions typically include reports on medical work done at the mission stations each year. These reports and minutes are a very good source of information on the work of mission hospitals and clinics and the careers of missionary physicians, nurses, and medical educators. In addition to the mission reports and minutes listed below, the society has in its collection some individual station reports. Researchers may contact the reference staff or use the reference request form to inquire about publications from particular stations.
The collection also includes numerous reports, histories, and other publications related to specific medical institutions. The following section lists the mission annual reports and minutes and institutional publications according to mission field. Note that the majority of these publications are from PCUSA missions and institutions. The society’s collection includes fewer publications from PCUS missions, though some can be found in the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Executive Committee of Foreign Missions. China Mission records, 1868-1969 (call number RG 431) and among the personal papers of PCUS missionaries. Some of the institutions listed below were the result of collaboration among the missions of several Protestant denominations. Most of these are listed with the relevant PCUSA mission, with the exception of the Shantung Christian University (Cheeloo University) School of Medicine; this institution is listed under the PCUS North Kiangsu Mission because of the close association between the School of Medicine and Dr. Randolph Shields, a PCUS missionary physician and medical educator.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. China Mission
Canton/South China Mission
Mission reports and minutes
- Canton Mission. Annual reports, 1902-1905 (call number MR7 PA ZCA).
- South China Mission. Annual reports, 1919-1914, 1922-1924, 1937 (call number MR7 PA ZSA).
- South China Mission. Minutes, 1912-1941 (call number MR7 PA ZSCM v. 1-4).
Works on medical institutions
- Report, 1850-1851. n.p., n.d. (call number NT8.3 C168or). (Report of Ophthalmic Hospital, Canton, the predecessor to Canton Hospital.)
- Annual reports. Hongkong: China Mail Office; Canton: Shameen Printing Press, 1894-1939 (call number NT8.3 C441c).
- Cadbury, William Warder and Mary Hoxie Jones. At the point of a lancet: one hundred years of Canton Hospital, 1835-1935. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1935 (call number MR8 C11).
Hackett Medical College, David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children, and Julia Turner Training School for Nurses
- Hackett Medical College. Bulletin. Canton: Shameen Printing Press, 1924, 1931 (call number NT8.3 H115b).
- Hackett Medical College. Catalogues. Canton: Shameen Printing Press, 1910-1911, 1915-1920, 1922-1926, 1928-1931, 1933-1934 (call number NT8.3 H115). These volumes are also available on microfilm (call number MF POS 206).
- Hackett Medical College. 30th anniversary year-book. Canton: n.p.,  (call number NT8.3 H115t).
- Annual report of the Hackett Medical College for Women, the Turner Training School for Nurses, and the David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children, in Canton. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press, 1918 (call number NT8.3 H115a).
John G. Kerr Hospital for the Insane
- Reports. Canton: n.p., 1910-1911, 1914-1915, 1924-1925 (call number NT8.3 J613r).
- Kerr, Martha Fay (Noyes). A short history of the John G. Kerr Hospital for the Insane. Canton: n.p., n.d. (call number F NT8.3 C168jk).
Ming Sum School for the Blind (also called Light Giving School for Blind Girls)
- Niles, Mary West. Reports of School for Blind, Canton. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1907-1908 (call number NT6.3 C168lrn).
- A sketch of the Light Giving School for Blind Girls. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1905 (call number NT6.3 C168lsk).
- Report, 1906-1910. Canton, n.p., 1910 (call number NT6.3 C168lr).
- Light house, no. 10: report for 1930-1935. Canton: Shameen Printing Press, 1930-1935 (call number NT6.3 C168ms).
- The Torch. Vol. 2, no. 1. Feb. 15, 1940-Vol. 3, no. 2, July 15, 1941 (call number NT6.3 C168mt).
- Ming Sum, the School of the Understanding Heart. The fiftieth anniversary, 1889-1939. Hong Kong: Standard Press, Ltd. (call number MR8.75 C16ms).
Other medical facilities
- Lingnan University, Canton. Medical Department. Report for 1928-1930. Canton: Shameen Printing Press,  (call number NT8.3 L646rm).
- Forman Memorial Hospital, Yeungkong. Annual reports. Yeungkong: Wing Hing and Wing Fat, 1932, 1936, 1940 (call number NT8.3 Y48fa).
Mission reports and minutes
- Shantung Mission. Minutes of annual meeting, 1911-1941 (call number MR7 PA ZSHM v. 1-6).
- West Shantung Mission. Annual reports, 1906-1907 (call number MR7 PA ZWSA).
Works on medical institutions
Temple Hill Hospital
- Opening of Presbyterian Hospital, Chefoo, Shantung, China, June 30, 1914. Chefoo: [McMullan], 1914 (call number NT8.3 C415o).
- Reports. Chefoo: McMullan, 1917, 1920-1932, 1937 (call number NT8.3 C415tr; NT8.3 C415tr 1917).
- Chu, Cheng-min. Temple Hill Hospital and the Training School for Nurses. [Soudersburg, Pa.: M. Chu, 1986] (call number PAM FOL RT 81 .C4 T44 1986).
Other medical facilities
- Dispensary, Ichowfu Mission Station, Shantung. Annual reports of Ichowfu Dispensary. Shanghai: American Mission Press, 1893 and 1895 (call number NT8.3 Ic3der and Ic3mr).
- Dispensary, Tungchowfu, China. Annual report of the… dispensary in charge of the American Presbyterian Mission, 1887. Shanghai: Kelly, 1888 (call number MR55 T83).
- American Presbyterian Hospital, Weihsien, Shantung. Annual report. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press, 1894, 1918-1919, 1921-1923 (call number NT8.3 W428aa).
North China Mission
Mission reports and minutes
- North China Mission. Annual station reports, 1906 (call number MR7 PA ZNAS).
- North China Mission. Minutes, 1911-1941 (call number MR7 PA ZNM).
Works on medical institutions
North China Union Medical College for Women
- Appeal for volunteers and medical specialists. n.p., 1919 (call number NT8.3 N811ap).
- Report. Boston: Joint Committee on Women’s Union Christian Colleges in the Orient, 1921 (call number PAM FOL R 812 .P4 N6d).
Taylor Memorial Hospital
- Report. Peking: S.A. Press, 1920 (call number NT8.3 P197tr).
- We have a birthday: Taylor Memorial Hospital, Hodge Memorial Hospital, Paotingfu, China, 1904-1934 (call number NT8.3 P197w).
Peking Union Medical College
- Annual report. Peking: The College, 1915, 1917, 1919 (call number PAM R 812 .P36 A31).
- Annual catalogue, 1919-1922. Peking: n.p., 1921 (call number NT8.3 P36a).
- Annual announcement. Peiping: P.U.M.C. Press, 1933-1934 (call number R 812 .P4 A2a).
- Docket and preliminary reports for the annual meeting of the Trustees of the Peking Union Medical College, April 9, 1919 (call number F TU73 P36nd).
- Addresses and papers at dedication ceremonies and medical conference at Peking Union Medical College, Sept. 15-22, 1921. Peking: the College, 1922 (call number F NT8.3 P36a).
- Ferguson, Mary E. China Medical Board and Peking Union Medical College: a chronicle of fruitful collaboration, 1914-1951. New York: China Medical Board of New York, Inc., 1970 (call number NT8.3 P36f).
- McLean, Franklin C. Report to the China Medical Board and the Board of Trustees of the Union Medical College. n.p., 1917 (call number F TU73 Un3nr).
- Monroe, Paul. Report on the Pre-Medical School Situation Made to the Trustees of the Peking Union Medical College. n.p., 1922 (call number F TU73 P36rpm).
- China Medical Missionary Association. Preliminary statement re: proposed Union Medical College for Women in China. n.p., 1920 (call number NT8.3 C441pu).
An Ting Hospital
- Report, 1886-1887. Peking: Mission Press, ABCFM, 1887 (call number NT92 P36).
- Annual reports. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1888-1894 (call number NT8.3 P36aa).
Other medical facilities
- Douw Hospital. Report. Peking: Presbyterian Mission, 1921 (call number NT8.3 P36dr).
- North China Mission. Shuntehfu Mission Station. Reports of Medical Work at Shuntehfu, Hopeh, North China, American Presbyterian Mission. [Peking Union Press], 1931, 1934, 1939 (call number NT8.3 N811sr).
Mission reports and minutes
- Hainan Mission. Minutes, 1915-1940, 1948 (call number MR7 PA ZHAM).
Works on medical institutions
- Kachek Hospital, Kachek, Hainan Mission, China. New York: Board of Foreign Missions, 1929 (call number NT8.3 H127pk).
- American Presbyterian Hospital, Hoihow, Hainan. Report. n.p., 1930 (call number NT8.3 H688ar).
- Mission Hospital, Kiung Chow, Hainan. Report. Hongkong: China Mail Office, 1888 (call number NT8.3 K658r).
- Mary Henry Hospital, Nodoa, Hainan. Report, 1935-1937. Hongkong: South China Morning Post, Ltd., 1937 (call number NT8.3 M369r).
Mission reports and minutes
- Hunan Mission. Minutes, 1907-1948 (call number MR7 PA ZHUM).
- Hunan Mission. Annual reports, 1939-1942 (call number MR7 PA ZHUA).
Works on medical institutions
- American Presbyterian Mission Hospital, Siangtan. General Report. Siangtan, Hunan, China, 1916-1919 (call number NT8.3 Si11ar).
- Presbyterian Hospital, Changteh. Annual report. Presbyterian Mission Press, 1924, 1935-1936, 1938 (call number NT8.3 C362pa).
Central China/East China Mission
Mission reports and minutes
- Central China Mission. Annual reports, 1923-1932 (call number MR7 PA ZCAA).
- Central China Mission. Annual station report, 1888-1889 (call number MR7 PA ZCAS).
- Central China Mission. Station reports, 1892-1929 (call number MR7 PA ZCAS).
- Central China Mission. Minutes, 1891-1940 (call number MR7 PA ZCM).
- East China Mission. Minutes, 1938-1949 (call number MR7 PA ZEM).
Works on medical institutions
- Tooker Memorial Hospital, Soochow. Annual reports. Soochow Presbyterian Mission, 1904-1905, 1908-1909, 1912 (call number NT8.3 So61ta).
Mission reports and minutes
- Kiangan Mission. [Reports] 1915-1917, 1922 (call number MR7 PA ZKS).
- Kiangan Mission. Station reports, 1905-1906 (call number MR7 PA ZKS).
Works on medical institutions
Nanking University Hospital, Nurses Training School, and East China Union Medical School
- Reports. Shanghai: Methodist Mission Press, 1917, 1922, 1924, 1928-1936, 1940 (call number NT8.3 N155r).
- University Hospital and Nurses Training School, Nanking Station, China. New York: Board of Foreign Missions, 1929 (call number NT8.3 N155up).
- East China Union Medical College. Reports and minutes, Nanking: n.p., 1910-1912 (3 pamphlets) (call number PAM FOL R 812 .N3 E2d).
Other medical facilities
- Hope Hospital, Hwaiyuan. Reports. Shanghai: American Mission Press, 1905-1906, 1909-1910 (call number NT8.3 H99r).
- Goodwill Hospital, Suhsien (Nanhsucho). Historical Sketch. n.p., 1936 (call number NT8.3 An 95gh).
Mission reports and minutes
- Yunnan Mission. Minutes, 1924-1934 (call number MR7 PA ZYM).
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. China Mission
North Kiangsu Mission
Works on medical institutions
Shantung Christian University Hospital and Medical School
- Report of the School of Medicine of Cheeloo University (Shantung Christian University). Tsinan: n.p., 1936-1938 (call number PAM FOL R812 .C4 D3).
- A modern school of medicine in China. [London : School of Medicine, Shantung Christian University, 1920-1921] (call number PAM FOL LG 51 .T8 M6 1921).
- Annual reports. Tsnian: Shantung Christian University Press, 1921-1922, 1924, 1926-1930 (call number TU73 Sh19mar).
- Report for years 1936-1938. Tsinan, Shantung, China: Cheeloo University Hospital Committee, 1938 (call number NT8.3 C414r).
- Extract from the report of the University Hospital, 1919. Brief notes on cases of particular interest. n.p.,  (call number NT8.3 Sh19ceb).
- Report, June 30, 1932. Shanghai: Brewer, 1932 (call number NT8.3 Sh19cr).
- The Present Position and Future Prospects of the School of Medicine of the Shantung Christian University, Tsinan. Tsinan: School of Medicine, 1917 (call number F TU73 Sh9emp).
- Cheeloo, where friendship comes first: a sketch of the hospital of Shantung Christian University, Tsinan, China. New York: Board of Foreign Missions, 1932 (call number NT8.3 Sh19pc).
Finally, the Presbyterian Historical Society’s collection includes many personal accounts of the medical work carried out at mission hospitals and clinics. These include memoirs, interviews, extracts of letters and journals, and biographies. The following is a list of works in the collection by and about Presbyterian medical missionaries, arranged by the name of the subject.
Biographies, memoirs, letters, and interviews
- Scott, Marcus. Life of Dr. Mary Brown, or, Eight years in China. Detroit: Geo. Harland Co., 1902 (call number BV 3427 .B759 S3 1902).
- Smith, Nellie K. A Chinese Helen Keller. New York: Women's Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, n.d. (call number MR3 .C245as). (About the Chefoo School for the Deaf and the work of Anita Carter with a Chinese student named Wang Fung-Yung.)
- Clawson, Dorothy L. In the China that was. Pasadena, Calif.: Pasadena Book and Printing, c1980 (call number BV 3415 .C52).
- Dilley, A. Vernon. Frederick Edwards Dilley, 1876-1937. n.p., n.d. (call number MR3 D583fd).
- Fulton, Mary H. Inasmuch. Extracts from letters, journals, papers, etc. West Medford, Mass.: Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, n.d. (call number MR3 .F959mi).
- Fulton, Mary H. Twenty-five years of medical work in China. Extracts from the letters of Mary H. Fulton, M.D., 1884-1909. Philadelphia: Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church,  (call number NT8.3 F959t).
- Inglis, Martha Theodora Marshall. New Lanterns in Old China, with forward by Isaac Taylor Hudland. New York: Revell Co., [c1923] (call number NT8.3 In4n).
- Bischoff, Mary Wentz. Kwok Fung Hiu: Helen Kwok, a Christian of South China, 1904-1943. n.p., [198?] (call number PAM FOL BV 3427 .K9 B5 1980).
- Speer, Robert. "Lu Taifu": Charles Lewis, M.D., a pioneer surgeon in China. New York: Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.,  (call number BV 3427 .L4 S67 1934).
- McCandliss, Carolyn. Of no small account: the life of John Glasgow Kerr, M.D., L.L.D. St. Louis, Mo.: Wanshang Press, c1996 (call number R 722.32 .K47 M12 1996).
- Speer, Robert, ed. A missionary pioneer in the Far East: a memorial of Divie Bethune McCartee. New York, Chicago [etc.]: Fleming H. Revell Company, [c1922] (call number BV 3400 .M122 1922).
- Millican, Edith F. Where the cranes fly: the adventures of Edith F. Millican, M.D. in China, 1943-1948: a medical adventure under the Presbyterian Church in war-torn China. n.p., c1987 (call number F R 722.32 .M55 1987).
- Carter, Anita E. Sketch of the life of Annetta Thompson Mills, founder of the Chefoo School for the Deaf. Chefoo: James McMullan & Co.,  (call number MR3 .M624s).
- Nelson, Henry S. Doctor with big shoes: missionary experiences in China and Africa. Franklin, Tenn.: Providence House Publishers, c1995 (call number Poethig Library R 722.32 .N45 A3 1995).
- Newman, Frank Watson. Interview of Elizabeth A. and Frank Newman. Interview by Margaret Deck (call number CASSETTE TAPE 1947-1948).
- Simpson, Cora E. A joy ride through China for the N.A.C. Shanghai: Kwang Hsueh Publishing House, 1922 (call number NT8.3 Si58j). (Cora Simpson was not a Presbyterian missionary, but a number of Presbyterian missionary nurses were members of the Nurses Association of China, which is the subject of this history.)
- Stevenson, Theodore Dwight. Interview of Theodore D. and Beatrice Scott Stevenson. Recorded at Westminster Gardens, Duarte, Calif. February 3, 1987. Interview by Margaret Deck (call number CASSETTE TAPE 1937).
- Thomson, Avis C., compiler. Memoirs of Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Joseph C. Thomson. Canton, China: n.p., 1935 (call number NT8.3 T371m).
- Tootell, George Thomas. Hazards of the mission field. Duarte, CA: n.p.,  (call number NT8.3 T619h).
This appendix lists selected publications held by the Presbyterian Historical Society that supplement the information on Presbyterian medical missions in China found in the agency records, personal papers, and published materials presented in this guide.
The society’s collection includes atlases that provide summary information on medical work by American, British, Canadian, and European mission societies in China:
- World Atlas of Christian Missions. New York: Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1911 (call number Large Folio BV 2100 .S7 1911).
- Stauffer, Milton T., ed. Christian Occupation of China. Shanghai: China Continuation Committee, 1922 (call number F MR5 St2.5).
- World Missionary Atlas. New York: Institute of Social and Religious Research, 1925 (call number Large Folio G 1046 .E424 I5).
The following serials include information on the work of foreign missionaries working in China, and include information on medical missionary work, medical education, and various medical associations in China:
- Chinese Recorder. Foochow, Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1870-1941 (56 volumes, call number NB C4412).
- Lodwich, Kathleen, compiler. The Chinese recorder index: a guide to Christian missions in Asia, 1867-1941. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc., c1986 (call number REF BV 3410 .C6 Suppl).
- China Mission Yearbook. Shanghai: Christian Literature Society for China, 1910-1939 (12 volumes, call number MR4.5 .M175). (Note that after 1925, this publication was called China Christian Yearbook).
- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Reports. Boston: Armstrong et al, 1810-1944 (call number NE5 Am3r).
The society’s holdings include publications of the following medical missionary associations:
- China Medical Missionary Association. List of members, 1923 and 1929 (call number NT8.3 C441l).
- China Medical Missionary Association. Proceedings at annual meetings, 1851-1852 (call number NT8.3 C441ta).
- Medical Missionary Society in China. Address with minutes of proceedings. Canton, China, Office of Christian Repository, 1838. (call number NT8.3 C16).
- Medical Missionary Society in China. Reports. Hongkong, China Mail Office, 1886-1894 (call number NT8.3 M468r). (This volume includes reports of Canton Hospital when it was under the management of the Medical Missionary Society.)
- Medical Missionary Association of China. List of members, 1910, 1914, 1915 (call number NT8.3 M468l).
These directories list foreign missionaries working in China (and other fields in Asia), with entries arranged by location and by missionary society:
- Directory of Protestant Missionaries in China, Japan, and Korea. Hongkong: Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1902-1917 (call number MR4.5 .P946h).
- Directory of Protestant Missionaries in China. Shanghai: Christian Literature Society, North-China Daily News & Herald, etc.., 1916-1940 (call number MR4.5 P946n).
Additional information about the society’s holdings of China mission records and manuscripts can be found in the following volumes:
- Heuser, Frederick J. A guide to foreign missionary manuscripts in the Presbyterian Historical Society. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988 (call number BV 2570 .P73 1988).
- Crouch, Archie. Scholars' guide to China mission resources in the libraries and archives of the United States. Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton University Press, 1983. (call number Z7817 .C76 1984).