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Presbyterian-affiliated Native American Schools

This guide provides an overview of Native American schools in the United States with Presbyterian roots or affiliation along with the Presbyterian Historical Society's holdings related to each school when available. Categories of schools include early mission schools, on and off-reservation boarding schools, day schools, agricultural and industrial schools, and higher education schools. This is not a comprehensive list; staff are continuing to conduct research, update the information, and add school names to the guide.

School list (alphabetical)

Albuquerque Indian School (Albuquerque, N.M.)

In 1881, Sheldon Jackson opened the original building of the Pueblo Training School in the Duranes area of Albuquerque on behalf of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A Board of Home Missions. The school was operated by the Presbyterian Church under a contract with the U.S. federal government from 1884 to 1886. In 1886, the US Bureau of Indian Affairs took over control of the school at a new location, at which point it became known as Albuquerque Indian School. The original Pueblo Training School became Menaul School, a boarding school for Spanish speaking boys, in 1896 and remains open today. The Albuquerque Indian School closed in 1981 and was demolished in 1989.

Date of operation: 1881-1981; demolished 1989

Also known as

  • Pueblo Training School, 1881-1886
  • Pueblo Industrial School
  • Menaul School, 1896-present

Archival collections

  • Sheldon Jackson Papers, 1855-1909 (RG 239)

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

American Indian Institute (Wichita, Kan.)

In 1915, Presbyterian minister Henry Roe Cloud (1884-1950) founded the Roe Indian Institute—the first college preparatory school for Native Americans in the United States--in Wichita, Kansas. Cloud was a Ho-Chunk Native American who was converted to Christianity and learned English while at the government-run Genoa Indian School. He later became a Presbyterian minister, educator, and administrator. In 1920, the school changed its name to the American Indian Institute. In 1931, Cloud facilitated the school’s transfer to the Board of National Missions. The school operated until 1935.

Date of operation: 1915-ca. 1935

Also known as

  • Roe Indian Institute

Archival collections

  • UPCUSA Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, Series IV, Subseries 3, “American Indian Institute, 1873-1942” (RG 301.8, Box 9, Folders 30-33, Box 10, Folders 1-11). Also on microfilm and in digital format: Records of the American Indian Institute, 1908-1954 (MF NEG 786 r.1-2)
  • UPCUSA Support Agency Photographs, “Wichita--American Indian Institute, 1927-40” (RG 303, Box 5, Folders 14-16)

Burney Institute (Lebanon, Okla.)

Burney Institute operated as a boarding school for Chickasaw children from 1860 through about 1910. It began as a girls-only school, and in 1872 began to accept boys. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church supplied the school’s superintendent and teacher, Rev. Robert Bell and his wife, Lucy James Bell. In 1887, the school reopened as the Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School. In 1895, the original building burned and was rebuilt. The school continued to operate until about 1910, and the property was sold at public auction to the L.E. Wood family in 1914. In 2006, the property was purchased by the Chickasaw Nation.

Date of operation: 1860-ca. 1910

Also known as

  • Burney Academy
  • Burney Institute for Girls
  • Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School
  • Lebanon Orphan School

Cameron Institute (Cameron, Okla.)

In 1893, James Reynolds, a confederate soldier and pioneer rancher, established the Cameron Institute. The school was sponsored by the Presbyterian Church and served students of any denomination from the primary level to high school.

Date of operation: 1893-early 20th century

Chemawa Indian School (Salem, Or.)

Date of operation: 1880-present

Also known as

  • Chemawa High School
  • Chemawa Vocational School
  • Forest Grove Indian and Industrial Training School
  • Harrison Institute
  • Salem Indian Industrial Training School
  • United States Indian Training and Normal School 

Archival collections

  • UPCUSA Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records (RG 301.8, Box 22, Folder 58)

Audio-Visual collections

Chuala Female Seminary (Doaksville, Okla.)

Date of operation: 1842-1898

Also known as

  • Pine Ridge Mission School

Cook College and Theological School (Phoenix and Tempe, Ariz.)

Presbyterian minister Charles H. Cook (1838-1917) established the Cook Bible School in 1911 in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1940, the school changed its name to Cook Christian Training School and many Native American WWII veterans took advantage of the G.I. Bill's tuition assistance program to attend after the war. By the 1960s, the school needed a larger site, and a former dairy farm was purchased in nearby Tempe. In 1988, the name changed again to Charles Cook Theological School when seminary-level courses began. In 1992, an Associate of Arts academic degree program began and the name changed to Cook College and Theological School. In 2006, the school transitioned away from college degree programs, and the name changed to Cook School for Christian Leadership. The school closed in 2008, and continuing programs fell under the rubric of Cook Native American Ministries.

Date of operation: 1911-2008

Also known as

  • Cook Bible School
  • Cook Christian Training School
  • Cook Native American Ministries
  • Cook School for Christian Leadership

Archival collections

  • UPCUSA Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series I, Subseries 8, “Cook Christian Training School” (RG 301.7, Box 7, Folders 8-21)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Support Agency Photographs, Series I, Subseries 1, “Tempe--Cook Christian Training School, 1921-54" (RG 303, Box 3, Folders 55-57)
  • View a list of unprocessed collections here.

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Dwight Indian Training School (Marble City, Okla.)

In 1820, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) missionaries established Dwight Mission on Illinois Bayou (near Russellville, in present-day Arkansas), named after Rev. Timothy Dwight. The school first opened in 1822, with two Cherokee students enrolled. In 1829, Dwight Mission was reestablished near present-day Marble City, Oklahoma. At the new site, missionaries erected several log houses to use for a school and staff housing, and the school reopened in 1830. Several of the buildings were burned during the Civil War, and by 1862 the property was abandoned. In 1884, the school was rebuilt and reestablished as a boarding facility for Cherokee girls by the Cherokee National Council, with funding from the Presbyterian Women's Board of Home Missions. In 1900, it became a boarding school for both boys and girls. The school closed in 1948, and in 1950, the property was purchased by the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and became the Dwight Mission Camp and Conference Center. In June 2021, the property was returned to the Cherokee Nation.

Date of operation: 1830-1948

Also known as

  • Dwight Indian School
  • Dwight Mission
  • Dwight Mission Camp and Conference Center, 1950-2021

Archival collections

  • Dwight Indian Training School Records, 1930-1948 (87 0413b)
  • UPCUSA Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, Series IV, Subseries 11, “Dwight Indian Training School, 1914-1949" (RG 301.8, Box 13, Folders 14-19; Box 28, Folder 21)
  • UPCUSA Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series I:, Subseries 8, "Dwight Indian Training School" (RG 301.7, Box 8, Folders 36-55, Box 9, Folders 1-10)
  • UPCUSA Support Agency Photographs (RG 303)

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Elm Spring Mission School (Erin Springs, Okla.)

A day and boarding school that was established in 1888.

Date of operation: 1888-?

Also known as

  • Erin Springs

Archival collections

  • John Tenney papers, 1880-1889 (47248 | 47249)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, 1867-1986, Series V, Subseries 32, “Elm Spring Mission, Welling, Correspondence, 1929, 1935, 1940, 1943” (RG 301.8, Box 22, Folder 55)

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Flandreau Indian School (Flandreau, S.D.)

Flandreau Indian School began as a Presbyterian mission school for Native American children around 1872, with classes held in a church building and meeting house known as River Bend Meeting House. The U.S. Bureau of Indian Education took over the school in 1877 through approximately 1892. In 1891, newly elected senator of South Dakota, R.F. Pettigrew, obtained land for the construction of a new boarding school, and by 1892 the first building of the new Flandreau Industrial Indian School was constructed. It continues today as a public, off-reservation boarding school operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Education, serving Native American high school students across the US.

Date of operation: 1872-present

Also known as

  • Flandreau Indian Vocational High School
  • Riggs Institute

Archival collections

  • Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Dakota Mission Collection, 1862-1928 (RG 375)

Ganado Mission (Ganado, Ariz.)

In 1902, the Presbyterian Church established a mission to the Navajo at Ganado, Arizona, and operated a day school there for the first ten years. Around 1910, the Board of Home Missions transferred a boarding school previously located in Jewett, Arizona, to the Ganado site, which became known as Kirkwood Memorial School. The mission site continued to expand in size and scope to eventually include a church, a hospital, and a high school (Ganado Mission High School). In 1930, the new Sage Memorial Hospital was built and dedicated. Sage Memorial became the first accredited nursing program for Native American and other minority women. By 1934, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs had established several day schools in the area, and enrollment began to shift from the boarding school to the government-run schools.

Also known as

  • College of Ganado
  • Ganado Mission High School
  • Kirkwood Memorial School
  • Sage Memorial Hospital School of Nursing

Archival collections

  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, Series IV, Subseries 13: “Ganado Mission/Ganado High School/Sage Memorial Hospital,” 1901-1967 (RG 301.8, Box 13, Folders 34-38, Box 14, Folders 1-21)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series 1, “Ganado Mission” (RG 301.7, Box 7, Folders 22-29)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Support Agency Photographs (RG 303)
  • View a list of unprocessed collections here.

Vertical files

Audio-Visual collections

  • Kee goes to school [slide] / by Janet E. Seville. (SLIDES A19 1-34)
  • Counting noses : [slide] a stereopticon lecture about children for boys and girls of junior age / by Janet E. Seville. (SLIDES A30 1-30)
  • Navaho highlights [motion picture] : a National Missions picture. (MOTIONPIC B24)
  • Little Americans [motion picture] : a National Missions picture. (MOTIONPIC A111)
  • Among the Navajos [motion picture]. (MOTIONPIC A118)
  • Little Indian Americans [motion picture]. (MOTIONPIC A7)

Publications

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Goodland Academy (Hugo, Okla.)

In 1848, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) sent missionary John Lathrop and his wife to Southeastern Oklahoma to establish the Goodland Mission. After they left for another post in 1850, the ABCFM appointed Oliver Porter Stark and his wife to continue their work, and the Starks helped to erect a building that would serve as both a church and boarding school for Chickasaw/Choctaw children. In 1894, the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. General Assembly’s Executive Committee of Home Missions took over responsibility for the Goodland Mission, and Rev. Joseph P. Gibbons was called to serve as minister of the Goodland Church and administrator of Goodland Academy. The same year, the church underwent its first major renovation, and the first dormitory was built for what was to eventually become the campus of the Goodland Orphanage. Goodland Academy continues to operate today as the oldest private boarding school in Oklahoma.

Also known as

  • Goodland Children’s Home
  • Goodland Orphanage

Date of operation: 1848-present

Archival collections

Publications

  • The Goodland Indian orphanage : a story of Christian missions / by Sammy D. Hogue. (E99.C8 H6)
  • Reflections of Goodland : volume I, April 1992 / Goodland Presbyterian Children's  Home. (E 99 .C8 R4 1992)

Good Will Mission (South Dakota)

The Good Will Mission was established by Rev. Stephen R. Riggs in 1870 under the auspices of the Dry Wood church in South Dakota. The mission served as an industrial and training school for Sioux boys and girls.

Date of operation: 1870-?

Archival collections

  • Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Dakota Mission Collection, 1862-1928 (RG 375)
  • Stephen Return Riggs Papers, 1837-1851, 1876 (RG 238)

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Henry Kendall College (Muskogee, Okla.)

In 1882, the Presbyterian School for Indian Girls (also known as "Minerva Home") was founded in Muskogee, Indian Territory as a small boarding school for young women of the Creek Nation. In 1894, the Board of Home Missions chartered the school as Henry Kendall College, in honor of Henry Kendall, the first general secretary of the Board of Home Missions. In 1907, the school moved to Tulsa and, in 1920, was reorganized as the University of Tulsa.

Also known as

  • Minerva Home
  • Presbyterian School for Indian Girls​
  • University of Tulsa

Date of operation: 1882-present (University of Tulsa)

Archival collections

  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, 1867-1986, Series IV, Subseries 32, "Henry Kendall College, Muskogee, 1917" (RG 301.8, Box 22, Folder 57)
    United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, 1871-1974, Series I, Subseries 8, “Oklahoma--Henry Kendall College, 1890-1928" (RG 301.7, Box 8, Folder 42-43)
  • Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. College Board. Records, 1883-1948, "Henry Kendall College, 1903-20" (RG 32, Box 15, Folders 6-9). Also on microfilm (MFNEG 824 r.1-2)

Mary Gregory Memorial School (Anadarko, Okla.)

Organized in 1891 as a boarding and industrial school by Rev. Silas Valentine Fait on behalf of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Home Missions. It closed in 1909.

Date of operation: 1891-1909

Also known as

  • Mautame

Archival collections

  • Anadarko Presbyterian Church (Anadarko, Okla.) records, 1889-2009. (ARCHIVES 13 0729)
  • [Letters] 1893-1897, New York [to] W.R. King, Muskogee, Indian Territory [manuscript] / Geo. F. McAfee. (MS M116l)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series I, Subseries 8, “Oklahoma--Oklahoma Mary Gregory Memorial School, 1895-1911” (RG 301.7, Box 8, Folder 46)

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Mekasukey Academy (Tidmore, Okla.)

Established as a school for Seminole and Creek boys. Supervised by the Presbyterian Church until the Federal government took over all Indian schools in 1906.

Date of operation: 1891-1930

Also known as

  • Mekosukey
  • Mekasukey
  • Mekusekey

Nuyaka School and Orphanage (Okmulgee, Okla.)

Per the historical marker at the site: "Established in 1882 by the Creek Council, Nuyaka Mission was a boarding school for Boys and Girls by the Presbyterians from 1884 to 1899. The Creek Tribe then operated the school for ten years. From 1909 until 1921 it was operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. From 1921 to 1933 it was operated by the Baptists."

Date of operation: 1882-1933

Archival collections

  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series 1, Subseries 8, “Oklahoma--Nuyaka Mission, 1882-1903” (RG 301.7)

Oak Hill Industrial School (Valliant, Okla.)

Per the historical marker at the site: “Established here in 1869 as Oak Hill Industrial Academy by Presbyterian Board of Missions as boarding school for children of Choctaw Freedmen. Academy succeeded small school begun in 1860 by ex-slave and Presbyterian Minister Charles W. Stewart to serve numerous black families who had settled here after Civil War. Name changed in 1912 after David Elliott gave funds for new dormitory in memory of his wife, Alice Lee. Students cleared and operated large farm to help support school. Hundreds of students trained at academy before closure in 1936.”

Date of operation: 1878-1936

Also known as

  • Alice Lee Elliott Memorial Academy
  • Elliott Academy
  • Oak Hill Industrial Academy

Archival collections

  • Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Unit of Work with Colored People Records, 1924-1945, Series V, “Alice Lee Elliott Academy, Valliant, OK, 1933-36” (RG 301.10, Box 1, Folder 25)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, 1867-1986, Series V, Subseries 32, “Alice Lee Elliott Academy, Valliant, 1931, 1936” (RG 301.8, Box 22, Folder 56)

Audio-Visual collections

  • Alice Lee Elliott Memorial School print file picture (PRINTFILE 109)

Publications

  • The Bible elements of a good character and good success maxims : four chapters from the Choctaw freedmen / by Robert E. Flickinger, recently superintendent of Oak Hill Academy, Valliant, Okla. (E 185.93 .O4 F67)

Oak Ridge Manual Labor School (near Holdenville, Okla.)

In 1848, Rev. John Lilley and his wife established the Oak Ridge Manual Labor School, near present-day Holdenville, Oklahoma.

Date of operation: 1848-?

Oklahoma Presbyterian College (Durant, Okla.)

In 1894, the Home Missions committee of the Presbyterian Church in the United States opened the Calvin Institute as a coeducational school for Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1901, the school was rebuilt and expanded and became known as Durant Presbyterian College. In 1908, the City of Durant purchased the building, and the school became Southeastern Normal School (and later, Southeastern Oklahoma State University). With the proceeds from the sale of the building, the Presbyterian Church purchased a new site and established Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Girls in 1910. In 1951, the College dropped "Girls" from its title and became coeducational again. The school closed in 1966 and continued for a time as the Oklahoma Presbyterian Center.

Also known as

  • Calvin Institute
  • Durant Presbyterian College
  • Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Girls
  • Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Women

Archival collections

Vertical files

Publications

  • Dust bowl girls : the inspiring story of the team that barnstormed its way to basketball glory / Lydia Reeder. (GV 885.43 .O46 2017)
  • Ties that bind : the story of Oklahoma Presbyterian College (LD 4294.O67 T53 2005)

Santee Normal Training School (Santee, Neb.)

Established in 1870 by missionaries as a school for Dakota Indians.

Date of operation: 1870-1938

Archival collections

  • Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Dakota Mission Collection, 1862-1928 (RG 375)

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska)

In 1878, Sheldon Jackson brought Reverend John G. Brady to Alaska to help him start a mission in Sitka. Brady located a plot of land, and in 1882, transferred his claim to the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions. In 1910, the New York based architectural firm of William Orr Ludlow and Charles Samuel Peabody were commissioned to redesign the Sheldon Jackson School campus. In 1917, a boarding high school was added; the high school closed in 1967, In 1944, a junior college program was added before the school became a four-year college in 1966. The school closed in 2007 due to declining enrollment.

Date of operation: 1878-2007

Also known as

  • Sheldon Jackson High School
  • Sheldon Jackson Institute
  • Sheldon Jackson Junior College
  • Sheldon Jackson School
  • Sitka Industrial Training School

Archival collections

  • American Presbyterian/Reformed Historical Sites Registry : application file / Sheldon Jackson College, Sitka, Alaska. (ARCHIVES 03 0123 no. 264)
  • Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Records, 1910-1940 (90 1012a)
  • Presbyterian colleges photographs, 1980-1988 (16 0815)
  • Sheldon Jackson papers, 1855-1909 (RG 239)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Department of Work in Alaska Records, 1874-1972 (RG 301.3)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, 1867-1986 (RG 301.8)
  • UPCUSA Support Agency Photographs (RG 303)
  • Walter A. Soboleff papers, 1997 (97 1208c)
  • Woman's Executive Committee of Home Missions/Woman's Board of Home Missions Records, 1866-1958, Series V, “The Sheldon Jackson School, Sitka, 1910” (RG 305, Box 29, Folder 10)

Publications

Audio-Visual collections

  • Sheldon Jackson [slide] : operation education / [presented by] the Board of National Missions, United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. ; produced by the Department of Audio Visual Aids in cooperation with Sheldon Jackson Junior College, Sitka, Alaska. (SLIDES B20 (1-78))
  • View a list of oral history interviews here.
  • Presbyterian missions in Alaska, May 1940-Aug. 1966 [sound recording]. (TAPE 1519). Also available in digital form in Pearl.

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Spencer Academy (Spencerville, Okla.)

In 1841, Spencer Academy was founded as a boarding school for Choctaw boys in Fort Towson. In 1881, the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions re-established the school in a new location near present-day Spencerville.

Date of operation: 1841-?

Also known as

  • Old Spencer Academy

Archival collections

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Blog post

Thomas Indian School (Iroquois, N.Y.)

Date of operation: 1855-?

Also known as

  • Thomas Asylum for Orphan and Destitute Indian Children

Tucson Indian Training School (Tucson, Ariz.)

Tucson Indian Training School was administered directly by the Board of Home/National Missions as a mission school, with a resident superintendent at the school. It was founded to provide Pima and Papago Indian children an elementary education and vocational training in a boarding school setting. In the fall of 1887, Miss Mary Whitaker, sent by the Board as a teacher, rented an old adobe public school building as a temporary school, went among the Indian villages in a buckboard to recruit students, and on January 3, 1888, opened the Tucson Indian Training School. In September 1888, the school opened in a new building with 54 students. The encroachment of development on the school led to a decision to relocate. In 1907, a ranch of 160 acres located 3 miles south of Tucson along the Santa Cruz River was purchased for the school. A post office, Escuela (school), Arizona, was opened on the campus. The school was commonly referred to as Escuela. The school closed in 1960 largely for financial reasons.

Date of operation: 1888-1960

Also known as

  • Escuela

Archival collections

  • Tucson Indian Training School Records, 1889-1963 (RG 103)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare Records, Series IV, Subseries 28, “Tucson Indian Training School, 1910-1966” (RG 301.8)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series I, Subseries 8 (RG 301.7)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Support Agency Photographs, box 3, folders 64-85 (RG 303)
  • View a list of unprocessed collections here.

Vertical files

Audio-Visual collections

  • [Interview of] Miss Hazel Cuthill [sound recording] / by Fred Wills. (CASSETTE 560)
  • Print file picture / Tucson Indian Training School (PRINTFILE 58)
  • Program of slides of the Tucson Indian Training School, 1959 (KIT 333)

Publications

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.

Wapanucka Academy (near Bromide, Okla.)

Date of operation: 1852-1911

Also known as

  • Allen's Academy
  • Chickasaw Rock Academy
  • Wapanucka Academy for Girls
  • Wapanucka Female Manual Labor School
  • Wapanucka Institute

Wewoka Mission School (Wewoka, Okla.)

Date of operation: 1866-1930

Also known as

  • Wewoka Mission Boarding School for Girls
  • Ramsey Mission School
  • Seminole Mission

Archival collections

  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Support Agency Photographs, Series I, Subseries 1, “Wewoka, 1955” (RG 303, Box 7, Folder 85)

Wheelock Academy (Millerton, Okla.)

Date of operation: 1884-1955

Also known as

  • Wheelock Female Seminaries
  • Wheelock Mission

Archival collections

  • Bella McCallum Gibbons papers, 1899-1927. (ARCHIVES 46251 46820 SPP 92)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Dept. of Mission Development Records, Series I, Subseries 8 (RG 301.7)

Wrangell Institute (Wrangell, Alaska)

In 1877, Sheldon Jackson made his first of twenty-six trips to Alaska to evangelize among the indigenous people of the land. That year he established a mission at Fort Wrangell, Alaska with Amanda Reed McFarland, the first woman missionary to Alaska. In 1878, the Rev. Samuel Hall Young was sent by the Board of Home Missions to Fort Wrangell where he established the first Protestant church for Natives in Alaska and the Fort Wrangell Tlingit Industrial School. In 1932, the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) established the Wrangell Institute on a site a few miles south of the original one. The school closed in 1975.

Date of operation: ca. 1878-1975

Also known as

  • Fort Wrangell Tlingit Industrial School
  • Tlingit Training Academy
  • Wrangell Institute Boarding School
  • Wrangell Institute for Natives

Archival collections

  • Sheldon Jackson papers, 1855-1909 (RG 239)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Support Agency Photographs, ca. 1870-ca. 1982, “Wrangell, 1920s-50s” (RG 303, Box 2, Folders 64-66)
  • United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of National Missions Department of Work in Alaska Records, 1874-1972 (RG 301.3). Also on microfilm (MFNEG 1395 r.1-41)

Publications

Digital collections

  • View digitized content in Pearl.
School list (by state)

Alaska

  • Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska)
  • Wrangell Institute (Wrangell, Alaska)

Arizona

  • Cook College and Theological School (Phoenix and Tempe, Ariz.)
  • Ganado Mission (Ganado, Ariz.)
  • Tucson Indian Training School (Tucson, Ariz.)

Kansas

  • American Indian Institute (Wichita, Kan.)

New Mexico

  • Albuquerque Indian School (Albuquerque, N.M.)

New York

  • Thomas Indian School (Iroquois, N.Y.)

Oklahoma

  • Burney Institute (Lebanon, Okla.)
  • Cameron Institute (Cameron, Okla.)
  • Chuala Female Seminary (Doaksville, Okla.)
  • Dwight Indian School (Marble City, Okla.)
  • Elm Spring Mission School (Erin Springs, Okla.)
  • Goodland Academy (Hugo, Okla.)
  • Henry Kendall College (Muskogee, Okla.)
  • Mary Gregory Memorial School (Anadarko, Okla.)
  • Mekasukey Academy (Tidmore, Okla.)
  • Nuyaka School and Orphanage (Okmulgee, Okla.)
  • Spencer Academy (Spencerville, Okla.)
  • Oak Hill Industrial School (Valliant, Okla.)
  • Oak Ridge Manual Labor School (near Holdenville, Okla.)
  • Oklahoma Presbyterian College (Durant, Okla.)
  • Wapanucka Academy (near Bromide, Okla.)
  • Wheelock Academy (Millerton, Okla.)
  • Wewoka Mission School (Wewoka, Okla.)

Oregon

  • Chemawa Indian School (Salem, Or.)

South Dakota

  • Flandreau Indian School (Flandreau, S.D.)
  • Good Will Mission (South Dakota)